Factors Affecting Utilization Of Malaria Preventive Measures Among Pregnant Woman Attending Ante Natal Clinic

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Factors Affecting Utilization Of Malaria Preventive Measures Among Pregnant Woman Attending Ante Natal Clinic


Abstract


This study was carried out to analysis the factors affecting utilization of malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman attending ante natal clinic in Owerri City. The study is was specifically set to establish the level of awareness about Malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman, identify the Malaria preventive measures that have been employed by the pregnant woman attending ANC, and identify the barriers to Malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of pregnant woman attending ANC in Owerri. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 264 respondents and 259 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the level of awareness and utilization of Malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman is high. The result of the findings reveals that the Malaria preventive measures that have been employed by the pregnant woman attending ANC in Owerri include; the use of insecticide treated bed nets, intermittent preventive treatment, use of insect repellents, and clean environment. Therefore, it is recommended that policy makers should also further encourage spouse support in pregnancy as some mothers fail to obtain these malaria preventive measures because of financial constraints(housewives). To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Malaria is a major health problem in sub Saharan Africa, where 74% of the population live in highly endemic areas, and additional 18% live in epidemic areas.[1] In 2013 alone, about 198 million cases of malaria and an estimated 584,000 deaths occurred, with 90% of these deaths occurring in sub Saharan Africa.[2,3] Nigeria bears the brunt of this burden, being the country with the most malaria morbidity and mortality in the world.[1] The country experiences an estimated 100 million malaria cases with over 300,000 deaths per year, with most of these deaths occurring in children.[4]Malaria in pregnancy is of significant concern in the developing countries, with substantial risks to mothers and their unborn babies. Pregnancy compromises a woman’s immune response to malaria attacks, exposing them to increased risk of infection, severe anaemia, spontaneous abortion, premature delivery or death while subjecting the foetus to the risk of low birth weight or stillbirth.[4,5] In Nigeria, it accounts for up to 11% of maternal deaths.[6] The consequent deficiency of foetal nutrition plays a role in low birth weight and reduced infant survival rates.[7]

At the dawn of the new millennium, African leaders committed to reducing the burden and mortality from malaria in the region by implementing strategies of the Roll Back Malaria Initiative.[8] This commitment was to be realized by the coverage of at least 60% of at risk populations with appropriate anti malaria interventions.[9] The target was subsequently redefined to 80% coverage by 2010, and further raised higher with the introduction of the Global Malaria Action Plan for universal coverage.[10]

The use of preventive measures against malaria among women of reproductive age is a key factor for the actualisation of the malaria control targets in Nigeria. This has been observed to be generally sub optimal in all the six geo political regions of the country.[11,12] The non use of preventive measures has severe morbidity and mortality implications, especially for pregnant women and under five children.[4,5] It also has adverse socio economic effects on the individual, community and national economy. For instance, it is estimated that Nigeria loses about 132 billion Naira annually from the cost of malaria treatment, transportation to sources of treatment, absenteeism from school, farming, work, etc.[13,14] The National Malaria Control Program noted in its 2006 report that the non use of preventive measures was one of the major challenges of the Roll Back Malaria programme in Nigeria.[11] Therefore, considering the culturally diverse nature of the people in Rivers State, there is an obvious necessity to explore factors that influence the use of malaria prevention measures.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Malaria is an enormous global health problem affecting 300-500 million people annually. In Nigeria there is stable malaria prevalence all over the country. This disease burden affects mostly the young children and pregnant women (Namusoke and Fatuma et al 2005) and thus is the most common yet preventable cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and Nigeria in particular.

Pregnancy compromises a woman’s immune response to malaria attacks, exposing them to increased risk of infection, severe anaemia, spontaneous abortion, premature delivery or death while subjecting the foetus to the risk of low birth weight or stillbirth.[4,5] In Nigeria, it accounts for up to 11% of maternal deaths.[6] The consequent deficiency of foetal nutrition plays a role in low birth weight and reduced infant survival rates.[7]


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to find out the factors affecting utilization of malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman attending ante natal clinic.

Specifically, the study sought to;

  1. Establish the level of awareness about Malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman attending ANC in Owerri.
  2. Identify the Malaria preventive measures that have been employed by the pregnant woman attending ANC in Owerri.
  3. Identify the barriers to Malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman attending ANC in Owerri.

1.4 Research Questions

In assessing the purpose of the study, this research project will answer the following questions:

  1. What is the level of awareness about Malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman attending ANC in Owerri?
  2. What are the Malaria preventive measures that have been employed by the pregnant woman attending ANC in Owerri?
  3. What are the barriers to Malaria preventive measures pregnant woman attending ANC in Owerri?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: The level of awareness and utilization of Malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman is low.
  • Ha: The level of awareness and utilization of Malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman is high.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study seeks to identify factors leading to the poor utilization of malaria preventive measures amongst pregnant women. The data obtained will help the district health team to improve Malaria prevention strategies or intensify the measures that are being undertaken to cut down on the cases of Malaria in pregnancy and thus improving on the quality of obstetric care given to mothers attending the above Hospital and preventing the adverse outcomes of Malaria in pregnancy.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is to critically assess the factors affecting utilization of malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman attending ante natal clinic in Owerri city. The study will therefore cover only primary healthcare in Owerri city.


1.8. Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Malaria:

Malaria is caused by infection with a microscopic parasite and is transmitted to humans by the bite of certain sorts of mosquito called anophelines.

Antenatal Care:

Antenatal care is the care you get from health professionals during your pregnancy. It’s sometimes called pregnancy care or maternity care.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the factors affecting utilization of malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman attending ante natal clinic in Owerri City. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the factors affecting utilization of malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman attending ante natal clinic in Owerri City. The study is was specifically carried out to establish the level of awareness about Malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman, identify the Malaria preventive measures that have been employed by the pregnant woman attending ANC, and identify the barriers to Malaria preventive measures among pregnant woman.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 259 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are pregnant woman attending ANC in Owerri.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Pregnant woman attending ANC in Owerri has an average level of awareness of Malaria preventive measures.
  2. The Malaria preventive measures that have been employed by the pregnant woman attending ANC in Owerri include; the use of insecticide treated bed nets, intermittent preventive treatment, use of insect repellents, and clean environment.
  3. The barriers to Malaria preventive measures pregnant woman attending ANC in Owerri include; educational background, knowledge about malaria, socio-economic status, poor awareness of preventive measures.

5.4 Recommendations

The researcher made the following recommendations:

  1. More efforts should be put in place by policy makers of ensuring free service delivery especially the financially constrained.
  2. Policy makers should also put more effort into encouraging full ANC attendance i.e four visits to ANC clinic by the mother.
  3. Policy makers should also further encourage spouse support in pregnancy as some mothers fail to obtain these malaria preventive measures because of financial constraints(housewives).
  4. There should be provision of ITNs together with IPTp during ANC visits as this will make the ITNs more accessible to mothers.

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