Poor Environmental Sanitation As Correlate Of Malaria

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Poor Environmental Sanitation As Correlate Of Malaria


Abstract


The study aimed at assessing poor environmental sanitation as correlate of malaria, typhoid and diarrhoea. The objectives were to causes of malaria, typhoid and diarrhoea which come as a result of poor sanitation, to examine the strategies that can be adopted to reduce poor sanitation. To establish proper waste management and water supply.

The exploratory research design was employed using both quantitative and qualitative research techniques taking Ogun central as a case study. The study was carried out mainly using quantitative approach of research. This approach set to establish a clear and objective orientation a vigorous, disciplined and systematic procedure, and a reality bound methodology which allows arriving at a theory that should be distinguished from a social philosophy, abstract speculation and everyday assumptions (Betrabd W 1993), (Shiff C 1991). This helped the researcher to identify the causes of poor sanitation in details concerning the phenomenon under the study. Target population is defined as a compute set of individuals, cases/ objects with some common observable characteristics of a particular nature distinct from other population. According to Ngechu (2004), a population is a well-defined or set of people, services, elements and events, group of things or households that are being investigated. The primary population of the study was the children, youth and these provided primary information about the ongoing situation under investigation. The key informants were the elderly who included the local council members and parents both females and males from the same site were used. The result in table 4.8 shows that majority of the respondents (75%) the construction of more pit — latrine, regular cleaning of toilets can be enhanced because every homestead will be having a pit — latrine of its own. And also the few private toilet facilities will be maintained clean. The study recommends the district, community, water and sanitation agencies and NGOs should all help the communities to build toilet facilities and institute better mechanisms of rubbish disposal systems through subsidies.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Sanitation is the means of promoting hygiene through the prevention of human contact with hazards of wastes especially faeces, by proper treatment and disposal of the waste, often mixed into waste water.

Globally, 2.4 billion people live without access to improved sanitation. Almost 1 billion of these people practice open defecation. Despite significant gains almost 2.1 billion people gain access to toilets or latrines since 1990- sanitation was one of the most off track Millennium Development Goals globally. Only 68% of the world’s population has access to improved sanitation, but 70% of the sub-Saharan African population and 53% of south Asia still lack access.

The world missed the MDG target by almost 700 million people.

Worldwide, over one billion people lack access to inadequate water supply, more than twice as many lack basic sanitation (WHO/ UNICEF, 2006) unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and insufficient hygiene account for an estimated9.1 percent of the global burden of disease and 6.3% of all deaths, according to the world health organization (Prüss-Ustun et al. ,2008) This burden is disproportionately borne by children in developing countries, with water related factors causing more than 20% over of the death of people under age 14. Nearly half of all people in developing countries have infection or diseases associated with inadequate water supply and sanitation( Bartram et al. ,2003) In the last few decades, National and International Organizations from both the public and private sectors have come together to tackle global issues in water and sanitation.

20 march 2008/ Geneva. Sixty-two percent of Africans do not have access to an improved sanitation facility — a proper toilet- which separates human waste from human contact, according to WHO/ UNICEF Joint Monitory Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation.

A global report will be published later this year; however, preliminary data on the sanitation in Africa was realized today as part of world water day 2008. The day built around the theme that sanitation matters, seeks to draw attention to the plight of some 2.6 billion people around the world who live without access to toilet at home and thus are vulnerable to arrange of health risks (WHO 2017)

Unclean water and lack of risk sanitation are undermining efforts to end extreme poverty and disease in the world’s poorest countries. Sub Saharan Africa faces some of the biggest challenges. Only 68% individuals living in the region have access to unimproved water source and only 30% of individuals have access to improved sanitation services, nearly half of all people using improved sources live in sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of sanitation costs billions to some countries for example 2.4% GDP in Niger is spent on the public health, education and environment. Almost a 1000 children under 5years die each day from diarrhea caused by inadequate water sanitation and hygiene.

The Ugandan water supply and sanitation sector made substantial progress in urban areas from the mid- 1990s until at least 2006, with substantial increase in coverage as well as in operation and commercial performance. Sector reforms from 1998 to 2003 included the commercialization and modernization of the National Water and Sewage Corporation (NWSC) operating in cities and larger towns, as well as decentralization and private sector participation in small towns.

Kampala city generates about 25000 tons of solid waste. However, 10% of this is collected. The rest of the solid waste is disposed via indiscriminate dumping and finds its way into the Nakivubo channel and / or the sewer network and ultimately into the inner Murchison Bay. This has exacerbated the sanitation problem faced in the Sewerage system and in the Lake Victoria (African Development Bank Group 2007)


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In Ogun central area poor sanitation resulted in substantial health impact in young children, including a higher risk of exposure to young infants, youth and adults at large which brought malaria, typhoid and diarrhoea. The majority of the people lived in Ogun central, mostly live in informal housing, and make do with pit latrine or inadequate sanitation facilities that do not handle human waste responsibly. This was alarming. This took up a big fraction of government revenues and low saving rates which resulted in low levels of investments, low incomes andlow standards of living among people. In Ogun central, it’s a pity that the youth living slum areas stand in a disadvantage position in terms of inappropriate social economic conditions evidenced by appealing sanitary conditions, poor infrastructures which leads to poor service delivery, poor accommodation facilities due to high population growth rate poor planning of the government institution.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.3.1 General objective

To critically assess poor environmental sanitation as correlate of malaria, typhoid and diarrhoea

1.3.2 Specific objective
  1. To identify prevalence of malaria, typhoid and diarrhoea which come as a results of poor sanitation?
  2. To examine the strategies that can be adopted to reduce poor sanitation
  3. To establish proper waste management and water supply

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How can malaria, typhoid and diarrhoea acquired as a result of poor sanitation be prevented?
  2. What strategies can be adopted to reduce poor sanitation?
  3. How can waste and water supply be properly managed?

1.5 Scope of the Study

The study concentrated on to the identification of causes of malaria, typhoid and diarrhoea which come as a result of poor sanitation, the strategies that can be adopted to reduce poor sanitation, waste management and the water supply. The researcher carried out the research in Ogun State in Ogun central area.


1.6 Significance of the Study

  1. It helped in the suggestion of measures or strategies to adopt to reduce poor sanitation
  2. It helped people to prevent malaria, typhoid and diarrhoea which are acquired as result of poor sanitation.
  3. It improved on the waste management and water supply. It increased on the proper usage of toilets and their maintenance

1.7 Organization of the Study.

The study was put into six chapters. Chapter one was concerned with background of the study, statement of the problem, general and specific objectives of the study, research hypothesis, significance of the study, limitations of the study, delimitations of the study, assumptions and definitions of significant terms. Chapter two dealt with introduction, influence of cost of education on rate of enrolment in science classes, influence on parent level of education on science enrolment rate, influence of cultural factors on science enrolment rate from primary to secondary, summary of literature review, theoretical framework and conceptual framework. Chapter three dealt with research design, target population, sampling techniques and sample size, research instruments, validity of research instruments, data collection procedures, data analysis techniques and ethical consideration. Chapter four analysed results in sub-topics based on the objectives. Chapter five discussed and interpreted research findings based on the objectives. Chapter six has conclusions based on research findings, recommendations and suggestion for further research.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The researcher faced financial constraint in the process of data collection up to the period of submitting final draft of dissertation. To this the researcher got financial help from parents and other well-wishers for the completion of the study.


Chapter Five


Summary of the Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.0 Introduction

This chapter presents a summary of the findings, discussion, conclusions based on research objectives.


5.1 Summary of the Findings

5.1.1 The prevalence of malaria, typhoid and diarrhoeas which come as a result of poor sanitation

According to table 4.6, malaria, typhoid and diarrhoea caused by lack of sanitation and hygiene bad water, Children under five are associated with repeated diarrhoea or intestinal worm infections as a result of unsafe water, inadequate sanitation or insufficient hygiene.

According to the respondents the result of lack of sanitation is usually open defecation with the associated serious public health issues.

It implied that diarrhoea is the most common disease in Ogun central which attacks the children under the age of five years. It also makes them more vulnerable to become underweight. These diseases include malaria, typhoid, and cholera among others.

5.1.2 The strategies that can be adopted to reduce poor sanitation

According to the residents, communal health clubs can influence community participation, sensitization of the community about sanitation, behavior changes in personal hygiene practices, cleaning of the shared toilets, improvements in house hold garbage can reduce sanitation. This is because it calls for every one’s involvement because they are the very ones facing the problem and they know its outcomes.

According to the respondents, in Ogun central there are no private toilet facilities reported except the public paid toilets. The few ones are shared and they are very dirty latrines whereby every homestead is having its own. Their regular cleaning can be enhanced. This implies that there are inadequate pit latrines and the few ones shared are ever dirty. This can reduce poor sanitation inOgun central.

5.1.3 Waste management and water supply

According to the respondents no any dustbin was reported neither a communal pit. People dispose of wastes in streams, top of the houses which risk to public health. The semi-permanent and the temporal settlements in Ogun central are connected with piped water. People get water from other sources namely public paid taps, private taps or the protected wells. There is inadequate supply of paid water source by NGOs, churches and private individuals.
According to the respondents, regular treatment of sewage, provision of high quality piped water, proper disposal of house hold garbage. Wastes can be properly managed and water supply. This implies that Ogun central need improvements in the provision of high quality piped water and construction of more pit latrine for proper waste disposal.


5.2 Recommendations

The following actions are recommended to the agencies involved as a way forward for any intervention policy information in order to find a sustainable solution to the problem.

Promote community participation

An effective sanitation improvement intervention programme must be implemented as soon as possible by the local area council to help solve the problem.

Mass health education

The District and NGOs operating in the area must collaborate and give more attention to educating the people of the community regarding the need to keep their environment clean and cultivate good sanitation and hygiene practices.

Sanitation facilities

The District, community, water and sanitation agencies and NGOs should all help the communities to build toilet facilities and institute better mechanisms of rubbish disposal systems through subsidies.

Environmental health inspection

The sanitation and health inspectors should inspect the communities to ensure different people behave appropriately with regards to community hygiene. They can also be agents of information flow for health education messages in the communities.


5.3 Areas of fuRther Research

Basing on the findings of the study the researcher suggested the following areas for further study.

  1. Unhygienic living conditions and health problems in Ogun central.
  2. Problems of poor sanitation in Ogun central.

Poor Environmental Sanitation As Correlate Of Malaria


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