Assessment Of Awareness Of PMTCT Services Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Assessment Of Awareness Of PMTCT Services Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic


Abstract


This study was carried out on awareness of pmtct services among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Oyo State. Specifically, the study assess the knowledge of pregnant women on the mode of HIV transmission from mother to child, determine whether pregnant women have adequate awareness of PMTCT, ascertain the attitude of pregnant women towards PMTCT interventions and assess the possible preventive strategies for mother to child transmission of HIV. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 141 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed that pregnant women have knowledge on the mode of HIV transmission from mother to child. The study also revealed that pregnant women have adequate awareness of PMTCT. The study further revealed that pregnant women have a positive attitude towards PMTCT interventions. Lastly, the study revealed that the possible preventive strategies for mother to child transmission of HIV are; creating public awareness, educating people on HIV, providing appropriate treatment, care, and support to mothers living with HIV, and avoiding breastfeeding. The study thereby recommend that, there is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women; a revised health education programme for pregnant women living with HIV should be implemented to enlighten women and mean on the need to utilize PMTCT services; health personnel should always encourage husbands of women living with HIV to utilize PMTCT services to prevent mother to child transmission of the virus.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major public health problem and continues to account for a substantial proportion of new HIV infections among young children [Thara and Srinivasan 2000; Murphy 2002; Botha et al. 2006]. The delivery of HIV counseling and testing (HCT) services toward pregnant women for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) is one of the most important HIV prevention strategies. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in scaling-up PMTCT services to pregnant women, particularly in resource constrained countries [Kalua, 2017]. The risk of MTCT of HIV can be reversed through the detection of maternal infection during pregnancy and administration of antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis [4]Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is an important source of HIV infection among Nigerian children. To achieve the goal of reducing the number of infants with HIV, there has been a rapid scale-up of ARV prophylaxis and HCT services in the country since 2005 [Makoni, 2015]. All pregnant women are encouraged to access ANC services and receive information, preventive services, HCT, access to treatment and ARV for PMTCT. The national PMTCT guidelines is based on the four-pronged approaches and recommends an integrated PMTCT and HCT services within routine family planning and maternal, newborn and child, and reproductive health services at all levels. Rapid HCT services are offered free of charge to all pregnant women attending routine antenatal, delivery and post-natal services in the country, using the World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (the Opt-Out) in health facilities [Makoni, 2015]. Despite the progress made in the reduction of MTCT in Nigeria by increasing access of pregnant women to HCT services, the proportion of pregnant women receiving the PMTCT services has been low. A total of 90,311 HIVpositive pregnant women and 14,276 HIV-positive births were reported in the country in 2010/11 [Kalembo, 2013]. However, the proportion of pregnant women counselled and tested for PMTCT was 33.4%, and only 9.3% of infants born to HIVpositive mothers received ARV prophylaxis for PMTCT.

There are a number of factors that contribute to the low uptake of PMTCT services. ANC, skilled birth attendant and HCT services influence the utilization of PMTCT for HIV. About 20% of the pregnant women in Nigeria do not attend ANC services. Even among women who attend ANC, most deliver at home due to lack of easy access to maternity services. In 2010/11, only 16.6% deliveries were attended by skilled attendant at a health institution [Kalembo, 2013]. A huge gap exists between ANC attendance and skilled attendance at birth. Studies identified various barriers to the implementation of PMTCT of HIV including socio-economic and cultural factors affecting the uptake of HCT services, initiation of ARV prophylaxis and lost to follow up after starting ARV for PMTCT. Therefore the study will examine the assessment of awareness of pmtct services among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Every day there are nearly 1800 new HIV infections in children under 15 years of age, more than 90% occurring in the developing world. Most (about 90%) of these infections are associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Moreover about, 1400 children under 15 years of age die of an HIV-related illness per day. Poor male partner involvement in PMTCT services is one of the factors contributing to reduced effectiveness of the PMTCT and hence failure to achieve the elimination of maternal to child transmission of HIV. For this reason the study looks into the assessment of awareness of pmtct services among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of the study is to look into the awareness of PMTCT services among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic. The specific objectives includes:

  1. To assess the knowledge of pregnant women on the mode of HIV transmission from mother to child.
  2. To determine whether pregnant women have adequate awareness of PMTCT services.
  3. To ascertain the attitude of pregnant women towards PMTCT interventions.
  4. To assess the possible preventive strategies for mother to child transmission of HIV.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for he study

  1. Do pregnant women have knowledge on the mode of HIV transmission from mother to child.?
  2. Do pregnant women have adequate awareness of PMTCT services?
  3. What is the attitude of pregnant women towards PMTCT interventions?
  4. What are the possible preventive strategies for mother to child transmission of HIV?

1.5 Hypothesis

  • Ho: Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Oyo state do not have adequate awareness of PMTCT services.
  • Ha: Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Oyo state have adequate awareness of PMTCT services.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to married men and women, single people, health practitioners and the government. Nonetheless, three are potential benefits to be had from some of the elements of ante-natal care, and these benefits maybe most significant in developing countries where mobility an mortality levels among reproductive-age women are high.

This study will serve as an existing material for further research and future reference.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study will assess the knowledge of pregnant women on the mode of HIV transmission from mother to child. The study will also determine whether pregnant women have adequate awareness of PMTCT. The study will further ascertain the attitude of pregnant women towards PMTCT interventions. Lastly, the study will assess the possible preventive strategies for mother to child transmission of HIV. Hence, the study is delimited to mother and child hospital Oyo State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

During the course of this study, the only limitation faced by the researcher was Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

PMTCT:

Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the awareness of pmtct services among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Oyo State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to assess the awareness of pmtct services among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Oyo State. The study specifically was aimed to assess the knowledge of pregnant women on the mode of HIV transmission from mother to child, determine whether pregnant women have adequate awareness of PMTCT, ascertain the attitude of pregnant women towards PMTCT interventions and assess the possible preventive strategies for mother to child transmission of HIV. The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are women at Oyo State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Pregnant women have knowledge on the mode of HIV transmission from mother to child.
  2. Pregnant women have adequate awareness of PMTCT
  3. Pregnant women have a positive attitude towards PMTCT interventions
  4. The possible preventive strategies for mother to child transmission of HIV are; creating public awareness, educating people on HIV, providing appropriate treatment, care, and support to mothers living with HIV, and avoiding breastfeeding.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. There is need for the involvement of the stakeholders in bridging the gap between knowledge and utilization of PMTCT services among women.
  2. A revised health education programme for pregnant women living with HIV should be implemented to enlighten women and mean on the need to utilize PMTCT services.
  3. Health personnel should always encourage husbands of women living with HIV to utilize PMTCT services to prevent mother to child transmission of the virus.
  4. Health personnel should avoid discrimination of women living with HIV and to show them positive attitude to that will encourage them to continue to utilize PMTCT services.
  5. The government should provide PMTCT centres in rural areas so as to provide access to PMTCT facilities to all, especially among women resident in rural areas. This will serve as an encouragement to rural pregnant women to utilize the PMTCT services.
  6. Government should implement the policy on penalizing those discriminating and stigmatizing people women living with HIV. This will encourage women to utilize PMTCT services without fear of discriminating and stigmatizing.
  7. Infant feeding counseling needs to be improved and access to portable water for formular feeding should be made available.

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