Awareness Of Malaria Infestation Among Secondary Student In Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State

Health Education Project Material

Awareness Of Malaria Infestation Among Secondary Student In Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State


Abstract


The aim of this study was to determine the awareness of malaria infestation among secondary student in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State. Research questions were formulated using the questionnaire as research instrument. One hundred and fifty respondents were used as sample study to determine the prevalence of malaria in the area. Result showed that lack of awareness and poverty leads to the spread of malaria among children and leading to death of the children and adults in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State . Use of insecticide treated nets reduced the prevalence of malaria in the locality. Recommendations made included that non-governmental organizations (NGO) should fully participate in enlightenment campaign in the locality and cleaning of roads, gutters and drainages should be encouraged to stop the spread of malaria.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Review of Concepts
  • 2.3 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.4 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity and Reliability of the Study

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

“Health, they say is wealth”. The impact of malaria cases in the life of a nations’ productive population cannot be over-stressed.

No wonder that the only indices used by the world authorities for measuring the difference between the developed and the developing nations are ‘life expectancy’ and ‘literacy level’.According to the World Heal Organization W.H.O (1995), ‘Malaria is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity since the 20th century. Malaria is a disease account for more than 70 percent of health problems in the developing nations of south-east Asia and Africa especially”.

Since Malaria is transmitted through mosquito bites, they breed wherever the environment is conducive for them. The question, which ought to be raised, is “if there is any economic importance of mosquitoes, except to transmit malaria infections. The obvious answer is no; therefore mosquitoes have to be eliminated to end the scourge of Malaria that has taken its toll on humanity.

Yes, there’s no doubt that mosquitoes itself does not cause malaria, but it’s a vector which carries the pathogens that cause this epidemic disease. In other words, the pathogen cannot find their lives way into the human body system except through mosquito bites.

Against this backdrop, the cultural environment has a very vital role to play in this problem. Talking about the cultural or man-made environment; the German geographer, Carl Sauer, resident in the U.S.A defined geography as the “study of land escapes”.

He went on to argue that is was possible to break the landscapes into two separate components

  1. Natural landscape
  2. Cultural landscape

Natural as the original landscape encountered in an area before man came into the place. Naturally, this type of landscape is difficult to come by at this age. The cultural landscape is that, transformed by man and, therefore, he said the study of geography can be centered around the theme of landscape change. Although, the definition is not a complete one because the landscape is just a part of geography. It is used here to point to the significance of the man-made environment.

“Azuwuike, (2007) argues that the environment is weakly defined as natural ecological components.

If it is just these, then such projects like the new power stations that may not affect the ecological components significantly may be dismissed as in- consequential.

Therefore, a good definition of the environment has to incorporate the dimension that is purely human and social, since projects can disrupt the functioning of society, the political organization, economic well being, etc., these are all included in the totality of the environment.

Therefore, the cultural environment consists of but is not limited to the open sewers, poor home sanitation, refuse dumpsites, paved surfaces, and roads which increase day temperatures, buildings, chemical effluents in water bodies, global warming, and population pressures.

At this juncture, it is worthy of note that much had been said about the influences of climate and other natural phenomena on the prevalence of malaria, but we also know that climate and nature are no longerdirectly, responsible for that. The so-called climate itself is now being controlled by the activities of man. As this thesis is being put together, the world is talking about climate change and its effects.

Just a few days ago, the African Union had just concluded: “the African Union Summit on climatic change” held at the University of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia.

This conference was attended by delegates from all the African nations including the new secretary-general of the United Nations- Mr. Banki Moon- who was the guest of honor at the summit.

What all these shreds of evidence point to be, is that our environment, the cultural environment to be specific has much to do with the survival of man and other species of animals on this planet. To be explicit and logical here, malaria incidence is prevalent because mosquitoes are predominant in our immediate environment too, and they find our surroundings conducive and favorable for breeding and multiplying.

The global implication of this trend implies that the so-called “poor nations” have a poor environment and the wealthy nations” inhabits a healthy and clean environment in contrast. The long term consequence is that the continuous neglect of our cultural environment at the expense of vibrant economic structure could have more serious, devastating, and catastrophic consequences on not only the environment but a generational consequence in trying to bridge the ever-widening gap between the rich and the poor in our world.

Malaria is an acute and chronic disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan of the genus plasmodium (Eneanta, 1996). Malaria has also been one of the world’s worst killer diseases throughout recorded human history. Despite attempt to eradicate it, it remains one of the worst disease in terms of death annually.

Malaria parasite was discovered in 1886 by Laveran a military physician working in Constantine Algeria (Ksogstad, 1996). Malaria is a serious notificable infectious illness characterized by periodic chills, fever, sweating and sptemomeguly. It has serious and often fatal complications which gave way to Falciparom malaria. It is intermittent and remittent fever caused by a protozoa parasite that incades the red blood cells. Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease of public health. Malaria is by far the most important insect transmitting disease (Curtis, 1991).

Malaria is a mosquito borne infectious disease of human and other animals causes by protists, it begins with bites from an infected female anopheles mosquito (Churchill, 1998)., it is transmitted in large areas of Africa, South America, Middle East, Eastern Europe etc symptoms of malaria are characterized by cyclic occurrence of chills, fever and profuse sweating. This occur when the merozoite destroys the red blood cells causing toxin to be released into the blood. Its symptoms also includes headache, nausea, aneamia and jaundice if serve.

Malaria is made up of types depending on the plasmodium involves. It includes tertian malaria caused by plasmodium, vivax fever, caused by plasmodium falciparum. The life cycle of malaria parasite involves the cycle in the blood of man and cycle in mosquito (Obueh, 2003). Considering the magnitude of this problem, it therefore become very extremely important that this project work should be carried out to examine the awareness of malaria infestation among secondary student in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Malaria has become very common and is increasing in an uncontrolled way throughout Nigeria and world as whole, due to the bite of the female anopheles mosquito which carries the plasmodium in an attempt to eradicate this deadly disease, a massive response need to be mounted by the government to enlighten the public about the prevalence of malaria. Also provide remedy for treatment of it.

Globally, a campaign against endemic disease like malaria had been difficult and, its control capital intensive. Especially in the developing economies of the world. In developing countries like Nigeria, malaria has continued to wreak havoc on the productive workforce of the nation and ravages the young population and pregnant mothers.
In Europe and the Americas, they had been able to successfully eradicate mosquitoes that cause malaria infection. Even though Nigeria belongs to the tropical belt which is notable for its high rainfall due to its high intensity of solar radiation, the area receives, especially in the rainy seasons. The prevalence of malaria here in Rivers State speaks more to than just climatic conditioning.

For instance, the statistics from the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (U.P.T.H.) in 2005, suggested that the incidence of malaria is reaching a prevalence rate. This is because when compared with the statistics from other health institutions in other states, it has a percentage range difference of 30% -40% of malaria victims for recorded cases. And, the host community of U.P.TH., in Obio/Akpor/ Port Harcourt city L.G.A s and its environs.

Despite all these, the prevalence ratio of attack and frequency of mosquito bites has assumed an alarming proportion since current efforts in combating this disease had been concentrated on the clinical aspect of malaria infection or measures against adult mosquitoes, such as indoor residual- sprays and insecticides- impregnated bed nets.

Therefore, it does not make sense to keep those productive aquatic habitats producing host-seeking mosquitoes ovipositing and transmitting malaria while trying to mitigate human mosquito contact through clinicaland curative approach alone without adequate attention to the preventive approach of the environmental management of aquatic habits.

Then, the question is can the unsanitary and overcrowded conditions caused by the influx of people be the contributing factors to the prevalence of malaria currently being experienced ?.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objective of this study is to determine the awareness of malaria infestation among secondary student in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State.

The specific objectives of this study includes;

  1. To determine the prevalence of malaria among secondary student in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State.
  2. To identify the various means the vector transmits the parasite plasmodium.
  3. To determine the symptoms and signs of malaria
  4. To examine the ways to eradicate the prevalence of malaria among secondary student in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were asked and answered in the process of study of this work;

  1. Does lack of awareness contribute to the prevalence of malaria among secondary student in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State?
  2. Does poverty encourage the spread of malaria among secondary student in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State ?
  3. Can malaria lead to the death of children and adults ?
  4. Can poor sanitation among the residents lead to prevalence of malaria manifestation?
  5. Does the use of insecticides treated net prevent the prevalence of malaria among secondary student in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The importance of this research cannot be over-emphasized. This is because according to the world Health Organisation (W.H.O) in 1995. Malaria is one of the most serious and complex health problems facing humanity in the twentieth century. In the past, climatic change hasgradually affected its geographical distribution. But, its seriousness and complexity are therefore likely to be compounded by anthropocentric activities generated through the greenhouse effect and unsanitary conditions.

According to Howe, (1977), “the study of medical geography which includes the while environment, influence on man’s welfare and which impair his health and promote diseases”. This work will be of benefit to the general public, the government, health institutions, environmental outfits in Rivers State, non-governmental organizations, and donor agencies for planning and projections.

To this end, the institutions responsible for public health, assessing, and managing the environment will be strong to reject bribery and corruption to save the nation against the continued poor health and poverty-related diseases ravaging its population.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This project work focuses on the awareness of malaria infestation among secondary student in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State. This study will cover Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, as sample study where resident’s opinion will be sampled.

However, there is delimitation of this study to just 3 area as a result of time constraint and means of transportation.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Children:

Plural child. Children are human who is not yet an adult.

Fever:

Fever is an abnormally high body temperature and also the state of nervous excitement.

Malaria:

Is a disease causing recurrent fever it is also a serious disease carried by mosquito to which causes periods of fever.

Parasite:

This is an organism that live inside or outside living organism and derives its nutrients.

Prevalence:

This is a condition that is common or widespread.

Protozoan:

These are microscopic and unicellular organism found in both marine and fresh water.

Symptoms:

Symptoms is a change in the body or mind which is the sign of a disease.


1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

In this study, our focus was to examine the awareness of malaria infestation among secondary student in obio/akpor local government area, river state. The study specifically was aimed at determining the prevalence of malaria among secondary student in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State; identify the various means the vector transmits the parasite plasmodium; determine the symptoms and signs of malaria; examine the ways to eradicate the prevalence of malaria among secondary student in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are mothers resident in Benin City, Edo State.

The findings revealed that:

  1. Lack of awareness contribute to the prevalence of malaria among secondary student in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State
  2. Poverty encourage the spread of malaria among secondary student in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State
  3. Malaria lead to the death of children and adults in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State
  4. Poor sanitation among the residents lead to prevalence of malaria in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State
  5. The use of insecticides treated net prevent the prevalence of malaria among children in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, River State.

5.2 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Non-governmental organizations (NGO) should fully participate in enlightenment campaign in the locality and cleaning of roads, gutters and drainages should be encouraged to stop the spread of malaria.
  2. Parents should endeavor to use insecticides in their houses to prevent the bite of mosquitoes.
  3. Parents should endeavor to use insecticides treated net to cover their children in order to prevent mosquito bite.
  4. Residents of Benin City should always keep their surroundings neat and bushes should always be clears as well as drainage systems.

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