The Effect Of Different Pasteurization Temperature And Time On The Quality Characteristics Of Tiger Nut Milk

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

The Effect Of Different Pasteurization Temperature And Time On The Quality Characteristics Of Tiger Nut Milk


Fresh tiger nut tubers were processed and blended to formulate thirteen different milk samples. The samples were pasteurized at different temperature and time. Sample A was pasteurized at 70oC in 4.5mins, B (65oC, 6.0mins), C (70oC, 4.5mins) D (65oc, 3.0mins), E (77.07oC, 4.5mins), F (75oC, 6.0mins), G (75oC, 3.0mins), H (70oC, 2.38mins), I (70oC, 4.5mins), J (70oC, 6.62mins), K (62.93oC, 4.5mins), L (70oC, 4.5mins), M (70oc, 4.5mins).

The samples were evaluated for their chemical composition, microbial and sensory qualities. Protein and moisture were the major components of the milk samples. All the samples had a very high moisture content (93.120 to 92.997%) and fat content ranging from 1.150 to 3.093%. protein varied from 2.188 to 3.734%.

The samples had a low mineral content (ash) ranging between 0.020% for sample C and 0.160% for sample A. The pH of the samples ranged from 5.00 to 6.37. A total calorific value increased as the carbohydrate, protein and fat contents of the milk samples also increased.

The energy value was high for all samples (32.722- 42.720kcal) with viscosity increasing with increase in pasteurization time and a decrease in temperature (8.80- 30.80cP). microbial analysis on a 7-day incubation period revealed moderately stable products with total counts ranging 6.00 x 106- 1.03 x 108 cfu/ml. coliform count on macconkey agar was low (4.00 x 106- 2.24 x 108 cfu/ml) while fungal count was high (0.33 x 106- 4.21 x 108 cfu/ml). Samples A, B, C, D and E were more microbiologically stable than samples F-M. All the samples were slightly acidic, acidity increasing as pH decreased from samples A-M (6.37-5.00). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) for taste and appearance but mouth feel, aroma and general acceptability were significantly different (p<0.05).

Keywords: Pasteurization, Temperature, Time, Microbial, Physio-Chemical, Tiger Nut Tubers, Tiger Nut Milk.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One:

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Tiger nut and tiger nut milk
  • 1.2 Problem statement
  • 1.3 Aims and objectives
  • 1.4 Scope of study
  • 1.5 significance of study

Chapter Two:

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Chufa Tubers (cyperus esculentus): As a New source of food
  • 2.2 Comparative physio-chemical evaluation of tiger nut, soybean and coconut milk sources
  • 2.3 chemical properties of tiger nut-soy milk extra
  • 2.4 tiger nut-soy milk drink: preparation, proximate composition and sensory qualities
  • 2.5 cyper coconut yoghurt: preparation, compositional and organoleptic qualities
  • 2.6 Chemical and protein quality of soybean (Glycine max) and tiger nut (cyperus esculentus) based weaning food
  • 2.7 influence of processing techniques on the nutrients and anti nutrients of tiger nut (cyperus esculentus L.)
  • 2.8 chemical composition and functional properties of flour produced from two varieties of tiger nut (cyperus esculentus)
  • 2.9 proximate composition and in-vitro anti-sickling property of Nigerian cyperus esculentus (tiger nut sedge)
  • 2.10 Proximate, physicochemical and sensory evaluation of ice cream from blends of cow milk and tiger nut
    (cyperus esculentus) milk

Chapter Three:

3.0 Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Source of raw materials
  • 3.2 Methods
  • 3.3 Flow chart for processing of tiger nut into milk
  • 3.4 Proximate analysis
  • 3.5 Microbiological analysis
  • 3.6 Sensory analysis

Chapter Four:

4.0 Result and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five:

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Tigernut And Tigernut Milk

Tiger nut (cyperus esculentus) a non-conventional and under-utilized tuber belongs to the family cyperaceae and is native to Mediterranean and tropical regions. The cyperaceae are monotyledonous plants which include up to 4000 species worldwide. Members of the cyperaceae family include cyperus dilalatus, c. rotundus, c. tuberosus, c. papyrus, and c. enculentus. C. esculentus is the botanical name for tiger nut sedge also known as ‘chufa’ (European sedge).

It has small edible nut-like tubers that are also called earth almond, ground almond or rush nut. Tiger nut is commonly known as “earth almond” chufa” chew-fa” and “Zulu nuts”. It is known in Nigeria as “ayaya” in Hausa “ofio” in Yoruba and “Akiausa” in Igbo. Tiger nut is of three varieties (black, brown and yellow). Among these three, the yellow variety is preferred to all other varieties because of its inherent properties. The yellow variety yields more milk upon extraction contains lower fat and more protein and posses less anti-nutritional factors especially polyphenols (Okafor, et al., 2009).

Tiger nut can be eaten raw, roasted, dried, baked or be made into a refreshing beverage called “Horchata De Chufas” or tiger nut milk. It also used as a flavoring agent for ice cream and biscuit as well as in making oil, soap, starch, and flour (Oladele & Aina, 2007).

In processing tiger nut into a milky beverage, soaking is a major unit operation. The tubers are soaked in water wet milled, sieved, sweetened and flavored. Soaking of tiger nut can be achieved at different temperatures and time, ranging from ambient (25-30OC) to 100OC for 5 hr to 12hr depending on the processor. Toasting, on the other hand, apart from aiding flavor development, improves minerals and protein content of foods and removes heat labile anti-nutrients (Onwuka, 2006).

The nut was found to be rich in myristic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid. Tiger nut was reported as very healthy and it helps in preventing heart attacks, thrombosis and activates blood circulation. It helps in preventing cancer, due to high content of soluble glucose. It was also found to assist in reducing the risk of colon cancer.

Tiger nut is suitable for diabetic persons and also helps in losing weight (Osagie & Eka, 1998). The nut is rich in energy content(starch, fat, sugars and protein) mineral(phosphorous, potassium) and vitamins E and C. tiger nut tubers contains about 8% protein and has 20-30% tiger nut oil, which is nourishing to the epidermis (Alobo & Ogbogo, 2007). The necessary essential minerals, calcium, magnesium and iron required for bones, tissue repairs, muscles and blood stream as well as vitamins B, which assist in balancing the central nervous system is contained in tiger nut tubers. Tiger nut tubers could be used for the treatment of flatulence, indigestion, diarrhea, dysentery and excessive thirst and contain higher essential amino acids (David, 1986).

Tiger nut milk is a refreshing purely natural vegetable drink or dessert, which is prepared with water, sugar and tiger nuts. It is a very nutritive, energy drink both for young and old (Tigernut traders, 2009).

1.2 Problem Statement

Although, milk has been successfully processed from fresh tiger nut tubers, not much effort has been made in trying to standardize the processing treatment to maximize nutritive values. Moreover, pasteurization has been known to optimize food products in terms of most nutritional, microbial and sensory profile, however, few minerals and proteins (amino acids) can be lost during the heat treatment, together with heat-induced changed in color and taste that is not acceptable. It is therefore necessary to standardize heat treatment of tiger nut milk.

1.3 Aims And Objectives

The aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of 13 different pasteurization temperature and time on proximate, pH, viscosity, microbial and sensory attributes of tiger nut milk.

The Objectives:

  1. To produce milk from tiger nut
  2. To pasteurize the tiger nut milk at different temperature and time
  3. To determine the effect of pasteurization on the proximate and sensory analysis of the tiger nut milk
  4. To determine the effect of pasteurization on the microbiological stability of the tiger nut milk samples
  5. To determine the viscosity and pH of the pasteurized tiger nut milk samples.

1.4 Scope Of Study

This study focuses on the influence of thirteen (13) different pasteurization temperature and time on the physio-chemical, microbial and sensory qualities of the tiger nut milk.

1.5 Significance Of Study

Milk is an excellent source of most nutrients. In developing countries, the cost of dairy milk is prohibitive. The high cost of milk in developing countries has led to the development of alternative source of milk from plant materials.
Tiger nut milk, from tiger nut tubers has proven a good substitute for dairy milk over the years.

Because of its underutilized, less-expensive and rural nature, it is hardly processed commercially and since it is processed locally, heat processing treatments like pasteurization, to combat pathogenic microorganisms in the tiger nut milk is excluded.

This report will provide information on its rich nutritional profile and also relay the importance of pasteurization of tiger nut milk to the public. The study reveals a well defined pasteurization treatment to take care of the wholesomeness of the tiger nut milk.

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

The results revealed that tiger nut milk can be processed from tiger nut tubers and pasteurization enhanced the nutritional profile of the products. The influence of different pasteurization treatment on the viscosity, pH, microbial and sensory qualities of the products was notable as there were increase in moisture, protein, energy value, fat, viscosity and high decrease in acidity and microbial load.

This indicates that the utilization of tiger nut milk would be more nutritious and microbiologically safe when pasteurized.

5.2 Recommendation

It is recommended that a suitable process control in standardized heat processing of tiger nut milk is enacted to the wholesomeness of the tiger nut milk and its microbial safety.

The Effect Of Different Pasteurization Temperature And Time On The Quality Characteristics Of Tiger Nut Milk

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