Analysis Of Physical And Chemical Properties Of Soya Bean

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Analysis Of Physical And Chemical Properties Of Soya Bean


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Soy processing industries select raw material based on weight, moisture, impurities and grain damage. Differences in chemical and physical properties of soybean cultivars are not taken into consideration in soyfood processing. Information on these characteristics could help food industries obtain products with better functional, nutritional and sensory qualities with greater cost‑benefits (Sbardelotto & Leandro, 2008).

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is a particularly good source of protein (35–42%) and fat (16–27%). This makes the soybean one of the most valuable and most commonly cultivated crops (Kumar et al., 2006). The soybean shares the flaw of many plants from theFabaceae family, namely it is prone to mechanical damage occurring during threshing, cleaning, drying, transportation, storage and processing. Knowledge of the physical properties of soybean seeds is therefore particularly important for the optimization of harvesting, drying storing and processes (Rybiński et al., 2009). Unlike cereal grains, soybean seeds have two cotyledons between which a gap may be formed if the water content is low. This leads to an increased susceptibility of the seeds to damage like, for example, breaking in half (Shahbazi et al., 201).

According to their different uses, soybean cultivars are classified as grain‑type, which are conventional
soybeans for oil and animal feeding, and food-type, which are those for human consumption in fermented foods and non-fermented foods (tofu, soy flour and soy milk) (Liu, 1999). Therefore, soybean cultivars for human consumption should present special chemical and physical characteristics.

In view of the above this project intends to carryout an analysis of physical and chemical properties of soya bean.


1.2 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this work was to analyze the physical and chemical properties of soybean.

Other objectives are;

  1. To carryout analysis of the physical properties of soya bean
  2. To determine the chemical properties of soya bean
  3. To evaluate the physical and chemical properties of soybean cultivars for food processing

1.3 Justification of the Study

Soybean is an important source of high-quality protein. Soybean cultivars with high protein content allow the production of foods with superior nutritional value and yield, such as soy milk and tofu. To make superior nutritional value and yield products particularly rely on the indepth knowledge of the physical and chemical properties. Therefore, this work will reveal the physical and chemical properties of soybean which will aid anyone with the knowledge of soybean and its physical and chemical properties.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

This project is focused on physical and chemical properties of soybean. The experimental investigations of both physical and chemical properties were carried out. The various properties of the grain revealed the following:

  1. The bulk density and kernel density decrease with moisture content over the moisture range from 7.4 to
    22.22% for soybean.
  2. The specific gravity decreased with moisture content for the moisture range from 7.4 to 22.22% for soybean.
  3. The dynamic angle of repose (emptying) increases with increase in moisture content of the grain for moisture range of 7.4 to 22.22% (wb) for soybean.
  4. The angle of internal friction has a high correlation with moisture content but differs from angle of repose for the grain studied. The values of internal friction are lower than the values of angle of repose as can be seen in previous figures.
  5. The dynamic coefficients of sliding friction of soybean increases with moisture content and significantly differs from surface to surface for the four surfaces studied. Among concrete, wood, galvanized sheet metal, and mild steel sheet, the values of the coefficient of sliding friction are maximum with respect to concrete.

5.2 Recommendations

More research is needed in the area of physical properties of our local agricultural products under our local conditions. This is the only way to generate data that will be appropriate to our indigenous designs. Design and development of devices to study these properties should be embarked on as a matter of urgency, since the modification of the imported ones for our local crops often introduces errors that could be mistaken for treatment effects.


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