Sensory Evaluation Of Composite Jam Produced From Four Different Tropical Fruits; Pawpaw, Apple, Banana And Orange

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Sensory Evaluation Of Composite Jam Produced From Four Different Tropical Fruits; Pawpaw, Apple, Banana And Orange


The work evaluated the sensory quality of composite jam produced from four different tropical fruits: pawpaw, apple, orange and banana. Pulps were extracted separately from the four fruits obtained from Relief Market Owerri, Imo State. four different samples were produced with the following proportions sample A, 40% pawpaw, 20% apple, banana and orange. Sample B, 40% apple, 20% pawpaw, 20% banana and 20% orange. Sample C, 40% banana, 20% pawpaw, 20% apple and 20% orange. Sample D, 40% orange, 20% pawpaw, 20% apple and 20% banana. The pulp samples produced were each mixed with prepared and standardized sugar and gelatin syrup, allowed to cook on constant boiling/stirring to get jam.

The prepared jam samples were carefully poured in steam/ethanol sterilized jam bottles and cocked immediately; and were allowed to cool. The cooled jam samples were served to panelist for sensory evaluation. Sample C which comprises of 40% banana and 20% pawpaw, apple and orange pulp was rated best in terms of taste, color, spreadability, texture and general acceptability followed by sample D (40% orange) in color and sample A (40% pawpaw) in taste. There is a significant difference among the four samples.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledge
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Problem statement
  • 1.3 Aims and objective of study
  • 1.4 Scope of study
  • 1.5 Justification of the study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Origin of jam
  • 2.1.1 Definition of jam
  • 2.1.2 Types of jams
  • 2.1.3 Uses of jam
  • 2.2 Origin of pawpaw, apple, banana and orange origin of pawpaw
  • 2.2.1 Varieties of pawpaw, apple, banana and orange
  • 2.2.2 Uses of pawpaw, apple, banana and orange
  • 2.2.3 Nutritional composition of pawpaw, apple, banana and orange
  • 2.4 nutritional value and health benefits of jam

Chapter Three

3.0 Material and Method

  • 3.1 Materials
  • 3.2 Methods
  • 3.2.1 Method of preparation of composite jam
  • 3.3 Sensory evaluation

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussions

  • 4.1 Results for sensory evaluation
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Jam is a mixture of fruit boiled with sugar and allowed to congeal. It is often spread on bread, biscuit and ice-cream. (https://en.m.wiktionary. Retrieved 04/08/2016). Bread and biscuit are types of food made from flour and water that is mixed together and then baked (Longman Dictionary). Jam is a type of fruit preserve.

Fruit jams are preserved fruits and sugar normally canned or sealed for long-term storage. Jam making, involves the disruption of the fruits tissues followed by heating with added water and sugar to activate its pectin before being put into containers. The sugar and the fruits used in producing jam varies according to the type of fruit and its ripeness. When the temperature of the mixture reaches 104oc the acid and the pectin reacts with the sugar (Jones and Layner 2003).

Normally, jam preparation requires the addition of commercial or natural pectin as a gelling agent (Madhave and Pushpalatha, 2002). The use of ingredients and how the jams are prepared actually determine the type of jam produced.

Jams are one of the most popular food products because of their low cost, all year long availability and organoleptic properties (Galkowska and Zagorska, 2010). Traditionally, jams were first produced as an effort to preserve fruits during off-season for consumption.

Nevertheless, processed product such as jams tend to have low nutritional values when compared to fresh fruits for an example, jam normally have lower Vitamin C content compared to the fresh fruits. This is due to exposure to the heat generated during processing (Jawaheer et al, 2013). Fruit such as lemon, apples, cranberries, banana, pineapple and orange are used in production of jam (Burkill, 1997).

Apple fruit is one of the most popular and favorite fruit among the health conscious, fitness lovers who firmly believe in the concept or health is wealth”. Apple fruit is packed with rich phytonutrients, which in the true sense is indispensable for optimal health. Certain antioxidants in apple have several promoting and disease preventive properties, and thereby, truly justifying the adage, “an apple a day keeps the doctor away” ( Retrieved 04/08/2016).

Banana fruit is a perennial herbaceous plant that grows from the underground rhizome. It flourishes well under tropical, moisture-rich, humid, low-lying farmlands. Banana fruit is composed of soft, easily digestible flesh made up of simple sugars like fructose and sucrose that upon consumption instantly replenishes energy and revitalizes the body. It is also one of the recommended supplement food included in the treatment plan for under-nourished children.

Pawpaw is the common name of species derived from the Spanish word papaya and American tropical fruit (Caricababaya) because of the similarity of their fruits. The fruit of pawpaw is large and greenish in colour when unripe and yellowish in colour when ripped. Fresh pawpaw fruits are commonly eaten raw, cooked, juiced or preserved. Raw pawpaw is an excellent source of Vitamin C and also has significant contents of calcium, magnesium, carbohydrate and dietary fiber.

Orange fruit is a fruit of the citrus species sinensisin the family or Rutaceae. Oranges, whose flavor may vary from sweet to sour, are commonly peeled and eaten fresh or squeezed for juice. Orange is a good source of Vitamin C and also has significant contents of dietary fiber, total polyphones, caratenoides, limonene, and dietary minerals such as potassium and magnesium.

1.2 Problem Statement

Fruits are difficult to keep for a considerable length of time, thus ripe fruits are utilized either as fresh fruit or processed into jam and other types of products. Most fruits are perishable in their natural state after harvest; deterioration sets in almost immediately due to metabolic activities which continue even after harvest.

The perishable nature makes it difficult to store and preserve fruits, hence, there is gradual loss of flavor and nutritional value. Large quantities of fruits are produced and wasted in Nigeria and many other developing tropical countries.

1.3 Aims And Objective Of Study

The objective of this study includes:

  1. To produce composite jam using four different tropical fruit; pawpaw, apple, banana and orange.
  2. To evaluate the general acceptability of composite jam.

1.4 Scope Of Study

This study covers the production of composite jam from tropical fruits; apple, banana, orange and pawpaw and to evaluate the general acceptability of the products.

1.5 Justification Of The Study

The combination of apple, banana, orange and pawpaw help to enhance the nutritional composition, the colour and flavor of the jam and these fruits are rich in antioxidant, Vitamin C, Vitamin A, many essential B-complex Vitamin such as folic acid which helps in production of a highly nutritive jam.

It is also highly essential to process and preserve fruits in order to guarantee regular supply of its products at affordable prices. This will reduce post-harvest losses and prolong the shelf life of the product; crops including fruits and vegetable are processed for different reasons.

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

Jam produced from the mixture of pawpaw, apple, banana and orange were seen to be acceptable, according to the trained panelist, based on the parameters listed thus (texture, color, spreabaility and general acceptability), which was compared with the jam brought from the market; the parameters used was seen to be ideal. The combination of the fruits (pawpaw, apple, banana, and orange) at the ratio of 40:20:20:20 gave the product a good consistency. The production of jam from the raw material was significant as it is a means of reducing post-harvest-losses of the raw materials.

5.2 Recommendations

Jam production is an effort to preserve fruits during off-season for consumption. The raw materials should be properly utilized on time, as they are perishable food materials, instead of wasting, also to ensure its availability during on and off seasons and to reduce the spoilage during post-harvest. Production of jam should also be encouraged because of its low cost.

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