The Constraints To Increased Agricultural Production Through Agricultural Cooperative Societies (A Case Study Of Selected Agricultural Cooperatives In Owerri North LGA Imo State)

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Project and Seminar Material for Cooperative Economics and Management (CEM)

Project and Seminar Material for Cooperative Economics and Management (CEM)


This project is dedicated to God Almighty for His grace and infinite mercy throughout my study.

I also dedicate this work to my beloved brother Mr. & Mrs. Kingsley Nwaike for their effort towards the betterment of my future.


I sincerely wish to express my gratitude to God Almighty for His kindness towards my staying in Nekede in my Higher National Diploma.

I honestly wish to acknowledge the effort of Mr. & Mrs. Paul Nwaike, Mr. & Mrs. Kingsley Nwaike, brother Tony Ikenna, sister Rose, Chidimma and all the rest of my family members for their prayer and efforts towards my achievement in the academic field.

Also my lecturers, my Supervisor, my friends in school and the management of Federal Polytechnic for their successful guidance during my Higher National Diploma. May God bless you all.


The major purpose of this study was to determine the constraints to increased agricultural production through agricultural cooperative societies. Structural questionnaire was constructed to collected primary data for this study. The hypothesis was formula to guide the study while 5% of level of significant was to test the hypothesis.

Finally, it was observed that the farmer’s cooperative in Owerri North were facing so many problems to increase agricultural production, these include:Lack of capital, difficulties in obtaining government facilities, lack of storage facilities, inadequate market outlet and attitude of banks towards agricultural cooperatives etc.

Table Of Contents

  • Page
  • Title page i
  • Certification ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgements iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of contents vi

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction 1
  • 1.1 General overview of the study 2
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem 4
  • 1.3 Objective of the study 5
  • 1.4 Scope of the study 6
  • 1.5 Research hypothesis 7
  • 1.6 Significance of the study 7
  • 1.7 Limitations of the study 8
  • 1.8 Definition of terms 8

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Review of related literature 10
  • 2.1 The concept of increased agricultural production 11
  • 2.2 The nature of agricultural cooperatives 12
  • 2.3 The activities of cooperative societies 15
  • 2.4 Problems of agricultural cooperative societies 17
  • 2.5 Effects of these problems on increased agricultural production 19
  • 2.6 Suggested solution to the problems 20

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Research design and methodology 23
  • 3.1 Sources of data collection 23
  • 3.2 Methods of data collection 24
  • 3.3 Research population 24
  • 3.4 Sample size 25
  • 3.5 Methods of data analysis 25

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Data Presentation and analysis 28
  • 4.1 Analysis of data 37
  • 4.2 Test of hypothesis 39

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations 43
  • 5.1 Summary of findings 43
  • 5.2 Conclusion 45
  • 5.3 Recommendation 45
  • Bibliography 47
  • Appendix 48

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Agricultural cooperative is a system by which farmers or associated agricultural related workers or business men are organized to help members increased their productivity and profit from their business. Agricultural cooperative engage in the production, marketing, processing and distribution of agricultural products. Therefore, all the cooperative societies that operate in the agricultural sector are engaged in these different operations belong to the group of agricultural cooperative.

In Imo State most inhabitants survive through agriculture and their main occupation is subsistence farming which attracted the interest of many cooperative societies, both the old and new ones. Increasing the agricultural productions was their main target and at the same time lifting the level of it size and qualities. Most of the crop couldn’t grow well in other to product that was several affected were coca yams, vegetables cassava stems, yam tubers, and other root crops.

The constraints to increased agricultural production through cooperative societies Igobo (1996) said. It is now on the government that dependence on the external sources of fund because it has ties their independence to the uncertainties of ridiculed.

1.1 General Overview Of The Study

Cooperative movement all over the world has been considered or taken as both means and instrument of development whereby individual as group of people with common socio-economic come together mutually to take and solve their common socio-economic problems. In our country today, sources of statements have been made in the newspapers and how others news media by scholars advocating the use of cooperative societies for the development and increasement of standard of living of the rural people.

In Nigeria, over 60 percent of populations are involved in agriculture. The green revolution as conceived in Nigeria was a cell for an accelerated increase in agricultural production through radial modernization of agriculture by removing all the known constraints to increased production and the provision of needed inputs and agricultural mechanization.

Moreover, many programmes has been introduced by the federal government in support of development agricultural in rural area such as Agricultural Development Project (ADP), National Agricultural Land Development Authority (NALDA), Directorate of Food, Road and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI), Better Life Programme (BLP), National Accelerated Food Production (NAFP), Operation Feed the Nation (OFN) etc, Recently, “the Family Support Programme (FSP) was introduce by the Federal Government with the aim of increasing the life of the rural dwellers through the formation of Cooperative movement .

Cooperative movement spans through many aspect of our economic life such as production consumption, distribution, thrift saving and the provision of rural infrastructures.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Nigeria has embarked on various programmes and policies costing hundred of millions of naira aimed at reviving the depressed agricultural sector.

In view of this agricultural cooperative was instituted so as to organize the small scale farmers who are still involved in manual labour type of farming in cooperative and had failed to produce enough food for our teaming population thereby forcing the country to be involved in importation of large quantity of food with a huge percentage decline in agricultural experts.

All these government efforts have not actually had much significant increasement in this sector, as much emphasis is now being placed on agricultural.

This call for urgent re-examination of the role of these agricultural products its aim of facilitating the attainment of self sufficient in agricultural and making agricultural to take its prime position in the national economy of this country.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

The general purpose of this project research is to undertake a study of the existing farmers cooperative societies and their effect increasing the development of agricultural and also the study has the following objectives:

  1. To identify the constraints to increased agricultural productivity.
  2. To identify the problems facing agricultural cooperative societies.
  3. To identify the effects of decreased agricultural production.
  4. To suggests ways and means for enhancing the effectiveness of these agricultural societies.

1.4 Scope Of The Study

This study will attempt to examine the policies of Owerri North Local Government development in agricultural and the important of cooperative in increasing agriculture production. The constraint in achieving the desired developing in agriculture and providing possible solution to overcome them shall also be examined in this project research.

However, in preparing this report the researcher has been handicapped by inadequate of time to take a more detail research.

Also within the time available, it has not been easy to contact most of the members of the cooperative and the state cooperative farm land whose farm land labour requirement is largely supplied by his family.
The sells and send in a localized market the requires show initial capital investment farm on smallholding with simple technology and at least 60% of his annual income from agriculture.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho Agricultural production cannot be increased through agricultural cooperatives society.
  • HA Agricultural production can be increased through agricultural cooperatives society.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

Agriculture is important in order to sustain any economy. Meanwhile, bring together the agricultural sector, any effort geared at carrying out research aimed at increasing the agricultural production should be considered and any suggestion on the increasement of agricultural cooperative should be on the sector.

Presently, our farmers are not adequately remunerated despite the fact that they bend over double trying to make the state self-sufficient and self-reliant in food production but they cannot compete with their counterpart nation, if they are organized cooperative increased productivity enhanced the profit maximized to them and farmer will look more attractive.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

In the research work it requires finance. Money is required to gather relevant materials; type the completed works as well as to meet up with other contingencies.

The limiting factor of time, time is very essential in any research work, some information could be left out in order to meet up with time schedule.

Lastly, attitude of respondents, they don’t give out information to the researcher.

1.8 Definition Of Terms

Agricultural Productivity:

The index of the ratio of the value of the total farm output to the value of the total input used in farm production.

Farm Production:

Is the process of producing foodstuff and farming related products.

Small-Scale Individual Farms:

This implies a farmer whose total cultivable counterpart the nation of Nigeria, not to talk to the world. If they are organized in cooperative increased productivity enhanced the profit maximized and their farming will once more look attractive.

Auxiliary Cooperative:

This types provides individual service to number the cooperative main functions which provide credit supply and market and storage. The cooperative has no handle in the supervision and management affairs of members farm.

Cooperative Society:

Is a voluntary economic association in which the member’s share the earned dividends the financial benefits that result from doing business at cost or without profits.

Farmer’S Cooperative:

Opined that cooperative is a form of organization wherein person (farmer’s volunteering associate together on the basis of equality for the production of their economic interest. In Yanga (1998).

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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