The Contributions Of Government To The Development Of Cooperatives In Nigeria (A Study Of Ekwusigo L.G.A In Anambra State)

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Project and Seminar Material for Cooperative Economics and Management CEM

Project and Seminar Material for Cooperative Economics and Management CEM


I dedicate this project to God Almighty for his infinite mercy, protection and also to my beloved mother Mrs. Olisaelo Ngozi .R. and my brothers, Mr. Obiyor Chidi. I also dedicate this project to my great mentor Mr. Uche Pascal.

Thank you all for your wonderful and financial support.


I express my gratitude to God Almighty for the life and knowledge which He has given to me and for the inspiration to writes this project.

I extend my gratitude to all my friends and others that contributed positively towards the realization of this project among whom are my parents and brothers, Mr. Obiyor Chidi and Mr. and Mrs. Obiyor Goerge. It is with deep sense of appreciate that I sincerely acknowledgement the members of Cooperative and Management, especially my good friends, Nwoke Chigozirim for their love, prayers and moral support.

Finally, my gratitude goes to my mentor and also my supervisor Mr. Teteh Innocent, and also my Head of Department of Cooperative Economics and Management, wonderful father Dr. Okoreaffia Okafor .

I really appreciate you all in Jesus name. Amen.


The research topic tagged “The Contributions of Government to the Development of Cooperatives in Rural Areas” (A case study of Ekwusigo L.G.A) was conducted to examine the performance and contribution of government in rural areas. In pursuance of this investigation the research work covers five chapters.

Chapter one deals with the introduction, background of study, research question, statement of hypothesis, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the study and definitions of terms.

Chapter two deals with the review of related literature to the topic of this project and related them to the study on hand to show that the process adopted in this study is real.

Chapter three deals with the design for the study and methodology of the analysis.

Chapter four deals with the data presentation, analysis and interpretation, data collection were presented in a tabular form while percentage was used for the analysis.

Chapter five deals with summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation of the research based on the outwork.

Table Of Contents

  • Title page  i
  • Approval page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of contents vi

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction 1
  • 1.1 Background of the study 2
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem 3
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study 5
  • 1.4 Research question  5
  • 1.5 Significance of the study 6
  • 1.6 Scope of the study  7
  • 1.7 Limitations of the study 7
  • 1.8 Definition of terms  8

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review 11
  • 2.1 Introduction 11
  • 2.2 Historical development of cooperative in rural agricultural  16
  • 2.3 Meaning of cooperative society 18
  • 2.4 Objective of rural development 19
  • 2.5 Scope for attaining rural development 21
  • 2.6 Concept of rural development 23
  • 2.7 Need for cooperative society 25
  • 2.8 Functions of cooperative society 26
  • 2.9 Problem of cooperative society 28
  • References  32

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Research design and methodology 33
  • 3.1 Introduction 33
  • 3.2 research design 33
  • 3.3 Sources/methods of data collection  34
  • 3.4 Population and sample size 35
  • 3.5 Sample techniques 35
  • 3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument 36
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis 37

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation and analysis of data 38
  • 4.1 Introduction 38
  • 4.2 Presentation of data 38
  • 4.3 Test of hypotheses  46

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendation 55
  • 5.1 Summary of findings 55
  • 5.2 Conclusion  57
  • 5.3 Recommendation 58
  • Bibliography 60
  • Appendix 62
  • Questionnaire  63

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Cooperative society and cooperative that engage in the processing, marketing and distribution of agricultural product. Therefore all the cooperative societies that operate in eth agricultural sector are engaging in the different operations along to the group of cooperative society.

An important form of cooperative society in Nigerian is the group farming society (GFS) members of this society engage in the production of a variety of crops while they also arrange for the marketing of such crops. Some other cooperative societies are devoted to the cultivation of single crop and such societies are named after the crop e.g tomatoes grower’s cooperation. Cooperative society we stock farmers cooperative societies operative on a set of principles which distinguish it forms other forms of business.

These principles guide the management staff with respect to function that led to the success of the society. The development of eth cooperative society is dependent on the knowledge skills and ability of are management staff. It is also dependant to an extent on the government and the support greatest likelihood for success is an communities having progressive development programmes (Williams 1974). The government and non-government programmes mostly about these community development programmes.

1.1 Background Of The Study

To develop the local government area the problems facing them should be solved or at least minimized. This needs the adoption and efficient implementation of certain development strategies and programmes.

The concept of rural development is an extension of the term development “Development” itself can be defined broadly as the process by which people create and recreate themselves and their life circumstance to realize higher levels of civilization in accordance with their own choices and values.

Rural development can be defined as strategies policies and their people through the promotion of social life and economic activities carried out in such areas of agriculture, rural development also aim at the promotion and exploration of economic and social infrastructure and institution with the ultimate aim of achieving a fuller utilization of the deniable physical and human resources and resulting in greater creation of employment opportunities, higher output and income.

Rural development also involve improving the literacy level of the people and broadening the democratic base of the grass root communities, local government and the nation at large and this allows the rural people to participate more fully and effectively in the development process and practice of the nation and ensuring grater economic and social justices. They must be familiar with and accepts the institutional method involved and used the development process.

1.2 Statement Of The Problems

The condition of villages in Nigeria today is so dissatisfaction that those villages in some local government areas which were once like heaven on earth to their inhabitance are today the images of poverty hunger, assault, incidence of aimed robbery and murder have became the talk of the day.

Litigations are resorted to over trifles and this creates persistent natural enmity. They dry and gloomy faces of the villages in the local government areas advertise their how state of health.

The villages who were once known for honestly in their habitants today give shelter to people who surpass their other people.

In villages where once the idea of morality was very high, corruption rural area and social irrelevance have today passed all limits. Indebtedness and unemployment have turned the villages into detestable places to live.
These numerous rural problems can be grouped into three main chasses, economic problem agricultural problem and social problem.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

This research has the major objective of findings how cooperative societies can contribute immensely to the development of Ekwusigo Local Government Area and as well as other rural areas.

Specific objective are:

  1. To identify the socio-economic characteristics associated with co-operative societies.
  2. To identify the support for modern farming investment for industrial development and expansion of market through co-operative societies.
  3. To assess the volume of viable co-operative societies.
  4. To identify the problems of co-operative societies in Ekwusigo Local Government Area.
  5. To recommend on how to improve co-operative societies in order to develop rural areas.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. How would cooperative societies contribute to me development of Ekwusigo Local Government Area?
  2. What are the social-economic benefits of belonging to co-operative?
  3. Can cooperative members improve their standard of living?
  4. Do cooperative societies increase farmer’s income in Ekwusigo Local Government Area?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

There is the need for the development of over society and Ekwusigo Local Government Area in particular through cooperative society societies. This analytical study shows the extent of some particular proposal for solution to these problems of rural development through co-operative society.

The greatest concern which African Government can look on is how our rural and local government area can be developed cooperative societies. It is envisaged that the findings suggestions and recommendations of this study will be beneficial to all non members and non members of cooperative society and government as well.

The various government of African are showing in recent years towards local government development as well as our society’s development at large, but some the impediments limitations against this development I our societies and rural areas in hindered by some odd. Rural development is understandable when viewed against the background of the relative neglect of these areas in spite of their importance.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

The study covers selected cooperative society in Ekwusigo Local Government Area including Obudi Agwa etc.

1.7 Limitations Of The Study

In writing this project, there are some difficulties that militated against this study, such as the time schedule, gathering of the research materials even inadequate finance. All these seem to be major problem of this reseach work. Another limitation of this study is the respondent’s attitude poor activities and way of life of most Nigerians coupled with illiteracy is also great obstacles. Some respondent’s were unwilling to give out the relevant information and this uncooperative attitude occurred mostly when they were not sure that this will be used for only research purpose.

1.8 Definition Of Terms

For clarification purpose and evidence of doubt this project work have taken into cognizance of some definitions of notable they word as follows:-


According to oxford advanced learners dictionary appraisal could be defined as a judgment of eth value, performance or nature of something or somebody.


This simply means an action or services that help to improve something.


This is the science cultivation of crops and rearing of animals for the use of man production of goods fibre and other raw materials for industrial use.


Co-operative could be defined as an autonomous, voluntary open association of persons, in a sociological sense, with variable membership and variable capital whose members have pooled their resources on the basic of self help solidarities mutual assistant and self reliant to form a democratic managed, control business enterprise in which the members actively participate and whose members basic objective is the promotion of the social economic interest of eth members through resolution of at lest socio-economic of those members duals capacity as either owner customers or owner employees in auxiliary and productive cooperative society.

Cooperative Society:

These are cooperative societies that engage in the production, processing marketing and distribution of agricultural products.


According advanced learner’s dictionary development means the gradual growth of something so that it becomes more advanced stronger etc. It also means a multidimensional process involving the re-organization and reorientation of the entire economic and social system.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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