Effect Of Women Cooperatives On Livelihood Of Members In Yenagoa L.G.A Bayelsa State

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Effect Of Women Cooperatives On Livelihood Of Members In Yenagoa L.G.A Bayelsa State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of women cooperatives on livelihood of members in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa state. Specifically, the study aimed to ascertain the extent of women participation in cooperative society in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State, determine the perceived effect of women cooperatives on members’ standard of Living in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State and investigate the impact of participation in cooperative society on rural women livelihood of members in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 150 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed that participation in cooperative society has a significant impact on the livelihood of women in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State.. The study thereby recommend that there is the need to educate the members of Cooperative organizations in order to enhance their capacity for optimum result and sustainability. Also, government should devise a strategy that would be supervising the activities of cooperative organizations for quality assurance and control. Finally, government support to Cooperative organizations in terms of enabling policy environment and assistance needs to be provided to enhance the activities of cooperative organizations in the state.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Cooperatives are widely recognised as a prominent institutional mechanism for empowering economically disadvantaged individuals within society. Despite the presence of cooperative societies, it seems that a considerable fraction of rural women are either uninformed about the existence of these cooperative societies or lack the fundamental socioeconomic attributes necessary for engaging in such endeavours. In rural areas, women constitute the majority and actively participate in various aspects of agricultural enterprises. They bear the responsibility for approximately 80% of the total food items produced, as evidenced by studies conducted by Njar (1990), Mgbada (2002), and Rahman (2004). Moreover, women contribute to 70% of food production and 50% of domestic food storage within the country, as reported by Ritche (1977). Furthermore, it can be seen that women play a significant role in both the active and reserve labour force, while their ownership of the means of production is seldom (Rahman, 2004). This highlights the crucial importance of women in the context of agricultural growth.

Cooperatives have been widely recognised as a prominent institutional mechanism for enhancing the socio-economic empowerment of those who are economically disadvantaged within a given community. Cooperatives has the capacity to foster economic and social development due to their status as business entities that adhere to a more comprehensive array of principles beyond the exclusive pursuit of financial gain. Cooperatives play a significant role in facilitating job creation via the direct provision of self-employment opportunities to its members and the supply of services to individuals who are not members of the cooperative. The promotion of small and medium firms, with a focus on company development, has been widely recognised and implemented as a crucial requirement and strategic approach for fostering job creation and driving economic progress in several nations (Essien, 2000). In spite of the presence of cooperative societies and the initiatives undertaken by various levels of government, it seems that a considerable portion of rural women are either uninformed about the existence of these cooperative societies or lack the fundamental socioeconomic attributes necessary for engaging in such endeavours (Idrisa et al., 2007). In some cultural contexts, women may encounter limitations on their ability to engage in autonomous entrepreneurial activities, often necessitating the agreement or involvement of their husbands. This is a significant obstacle to engagement in collaborative endeavours. While it is true that women’s legal rights may be mentioned in a cooperative, their enforcement may not always be guaranteed or they may be overridden by customary law. According to Ashanti (1993), the limited involvement of women in cooperative decision-making and leadership roles may be attributed to their inadequate access to social, economic, and legal rights. In addition to cultural factors, women in developing nations face significant barriers that impede their active engagement in cooperatives, notably the traditional gender roles assigned to women within society and the prevailing misconception that their primary role is limited to reproductive and domestic responsibilities. However, Eboh (1988) acknowledged that while women primarily have significant responsibilities in home health and nutrition, their involvement in agriculture encompasses several aspects of agribusiness, such as food production, animal production, fisheries, and farm management.

Hence, it is imperative to adopt cooperative alternatives. The majority of individuals affiliated with cooperative organisations actively participate in various economic activities, so making significant contributions to the overall economic outputs of the country. The attainment of economic growth is more effectively realised via collaborative efforts aimed at addressing the challenge of limited resources. According to the research conducted by Kareem, Arigbabu, Akintaro, and Badmus (2012), it is evident that cooperative societies are prevalent in the majority of workplaces in Nigeria, especially inside government enterprises. The effectiveness of this approach stems from the fact that financial transactions are conducted in collaboration with employers who act on behalf of their employees. As an example, the funds contributed by staff members to the co-operatives are deducted directly from their income, and the repayment of loans is facilitated by deducting the corresponding amounts from their salary, as per the instructions provided by the operators of the societies (Godwin, 2011). Similarly, there are cooperative organisations that have been established via private initiative, when a collective of individuals with a shared economic objective endeavour to enhance their financial standing over time.

Cooperative societies consistently emerge as a superior choice for the government’s economic restoration efforts. A significant proportion of Non-Cooperative Groups (NCGs) often fail to achieve their intended economic goals, resulting in premature dissolution. This research aims to investigate the economic potentials of cooperative societies, with a particular focus on the role of microfinance in boosting Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and enhancing the economic production capacity of these societies. Despite the potential of microfinance, Cooperative Societies as an informal financial source encounter several drawbacks. One of the challenges encountered is the insufficiency of money that can be mobilised from the members of the cooperative society in relation to the financial requirements of small-scale manufacturers. There are several problems that have hindered the effectiveness of the cooperative sector as an economic instrument for microfinance, job generation, poverty alleviation, and wealth accumulation. Several factors contribute to the issues faced in the cooperative movement, including ineffective leadership, insufficient mutual training and exposure to contemporary management approaches, an unclear government role, and the difficulties posed by a rapidly evolving global landscape.

Kareem, Arigbabu, Akintaro, and Badmus (2012) reached the conclusion that cooperative societies have a significant impact on the welfare of their members. Furthermore, they emphasised the crucial role played by cooperative societies in reducing poverty and facilitating capital formation. These findings hold particular relevance for countries in the less developed category, such as Nigeria. However, the proposal to provide government aid to cooperative societies in order to enhance their capital base via the yearly national budget requires more empirical research. Collaborative efforts are the most effective approach for pushing the boundaries of the economic challenge posed by scarcity. The thesis posits that greater achievements may be realised via the collaborative coordination of individuals, whereby the interests and skills of others are taken into account (Reeve, 2003). Cooperative societies consistently emerge as a superior choice for the government’s economic rehabilitation efforts; nevertheless, the Nigerian Government has consistently neglected the immense potential they hold. The Great Unique Ladies Savings Group is well recognised as a prominent institutional mechanism for the empowerment of economically disadvantaged women within society. The cooperative society plays a crucial role in offering financial aid to its members who are in need, while also facilitating the procurement of commodities or products and selling them to members at a reduced price. Despite the presence of cooperative societies and the endeavours of government entities at various levels, it seems that a considerable portion of rural women are either uninformed about the existence of these cooperative societies or lack the fundamental socioeconomic attributes necessary for engaging in such endeavours. It is based on this that the study examined effect of women cooperatives on livelihood of members in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Cooperatives are prevalent across a wide range of countries and economic sectors. The efficacy of cooperatives in addressing the dynamic demands of individuals is well acknowledged. In light of the ramifications of globalisation, individuals persist in opting for cooperative models as a means to cater to their requirements. In some nations, individuals are initiating novel cooperative ventures within sectors such as social care and information technology. In addition to males, women and adolescents are increasingly opting for the cooperative model as a means to establish their own firms, so generating fresh employment prospects and avenues for advancement. The cooperative advantage encompasses both the beneficiaries of cooperatives and the communities in which they are situated. Cooperatives demonstrate suboptimal management practises. This phenomenon occurs due to the fact that individuals are voted to the management committee primarily based on their popularity rather than their managerial competence and experience. The current situation is not promising for the organisation, considering its expectation of having competent and capable leadership (Adesina, 1998; Robin, 1976). This situation has significantly contributed to the ongoing decline in the returns on their assets. Indeed, the initial emphasis of the pioneers has been effectively terminated. The financial limitations faced by cooperative members provide an additional restraint. This problem arises from the financial backgrounds of the individuals involved. Enikanselu (2005) conducted a study. In this particular circumstance, cooperatives find themselves constrained by financial limitations, hindering their ability to achieve their desired level of success. As a result, they have had challenges in recruiting competent personnel to effectively record their operations. The outcome entails significant financial losses experienced by cooperatives, leading to a simultaneous decline in their financial foundation. Hence, the need examine effect of women cooperatives on livelihood of members in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of the study is to examine the effect of women cooperatives on livelihood of members in yenagoa LGA Bayelsa state.

The specific obectives is as follows:

  1. Ascertain the extent of women participation in cooperative society in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State.
  2. Determine the perceived effect of women cooperatives on members’ standard of Living in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State.
  3. Investigate the impact of participation in cooperative society on rural women livelihood of members in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

  1. What is the extent of women participation in cooperative society in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State?
  2. What is the perceived effect of women cooperatives on members’ standard of Living in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State?
  3. What are the impact of participation in cooperative society on rural women livelihood of members in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State?

1.5 Resrearch Hypotheses

  • Ho: Participation in cooperative society has no significant impact on the livelihood of women in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State.
  • Ha: Participation in cooperative society has a significant impact on the livelihood of women in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State.

1.6 Significance of the study

The findings of the research study will help to increase the empowerment of women via means of finance by co-operative society. Result of the study will contribute to bridge the knowledge gap between past work of notable scholars and authors who have written on cooperative society and women empowerment. Also, this work will serves as a reference point to other researcher who will carry out a research relating the present topic.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focus on effect of women cooperatives on livelihood of members in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa state. Hence, the study will ascertain the extent of women participation in cooperative society in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State, determine the perceived effect of women cooperatives on members’ standard of Living in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State and investigate the impact of participation in cooperative society on rural women livelihood of members in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State. Hence, the study is delimited to Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and in the data collection process, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Furthermore, the researcher did this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Cooperative Society:

It is a voluntary association of individuals, united by common bond, who have come together to pursue their economic goals for their own benefits.

Livlihood:

A means of securing the necessities of life.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on theeffect of women cooperatives on livelihood of members in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa state. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting ascertain the extent of women participation in cooperative society in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State, determine the perceived effect of women cooperatives on members’ standard of Living in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State and investigate the impact of participation in cooperative society on rural women livelihood of members in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from women involved in coorperative society.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. The extent of women participation in cooperative society in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State is high.
  2. There is a positive effect of women cooperatives on members’ standard of Living in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State.
  3. Cooperative society has a significant impact on the livelihood of women in Yenagoa LGA Bayelsa State as it increases household food security, improves innovative capacity, increases income and ensures Inter-business relationship.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. There is the need to educate the members of Cooperative organizations in order to enhance their capacity for optimum result and sustainability.
  2. Government should devise a strategy that would be supervising the activities of cooperative organizations for quality assurance and control.
  3. Government support to Cooperative organizations in terms of enabling policyenvironment and assistance needs to be provided to enhance the activities of cooperative organizations in the state.
  4. To reduce the level of illiteracy and to educate its members, the cooperative organizations should organize Adult literacy classes for their members at primary cooperative level, further more; training of leaders is also very vital. It should involve exchange of experience with other leaders and taking part in meetings to compare their ideas and common problems.
  5. Cooperative organizations can be used as a pressure group to check the activities of people in the Government because it has no any political undertone or affiliations.

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