Challenges In The Provision Of Reprographic Services By Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Library (FPNO)

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Project and Seminar Material for Library and Information Science

Project and Seminar Material for Library and Information Science


I dedicate this work to God Almighty for his infinite mercies and love, and to my beloved Unaji Sydney Ikechukwu for his understanding, love and financial support which made this work a success.


I express my profound gratitude to my supervisor Mr. Nnadimele Isaac whose guidance, counseling, scholarly and valuable suggestion led to the successful completion of this work.

I appreciate in a very special way the moral support and encouragement from parent Mrs. Evelyn C. onyeoziri Agulanna and to all my brothers and sisters.

My thanks also go to my beloved friends and course mates miss Ijeoma Mokwe, miss Nnenna Ediphine Uzodinma who is the brain behind undergoing OND programme.

I am also grateful to my HOD Mr. Desmond Chinedu Oparateu for his immense contributions and advice towards the success of this work and to all whom in one way has contributed to the success of this work.

Table Of Content

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstracts
  • Content page

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of study
  • 1.4 Significance of study
  • 1.5 Scope of study
  • 1.6 Research question definition of terms
  • 1.7 References

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Literature review

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Research methodology
  • 3.2 Population methodology
  • 3.3 Method of data collection
  • 3.4 Sample size and sampling techniques

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation of analysis of data
  • 4.1 Data presentation
  • 4.2 Data analysis

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendation
  • 5.1 Summary of findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix.


This research work is on Challenges on the provision of reprographic services by Federal Polytechnic Nekede (FPNO) library, Owerri. The aim of this research is to determine the challenges,adequacy and accessibility of reprographic equipment towards enhancing the need for the users. The researcher distributed 25 questionnaires to staff and students of the institutions which were all completed and returned.

The researcher observed that the Federal Polytechnic, Nekede management does not allocate enough fund for the maintenance of reprographic equipment. At the same hand F.P.N.O respondent’s shows that immediate beneficiaries of reprographic services are the students, researchers, and academic staff. In research methodology, the target population is the staff, with students drawn from the staff, with students drawn from the institution. The researcher used table frequency and percentages of the responses to each question. The researcher made her recommendation based on the findings of the study.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

This research is therefore focused geared towards investigating the appraised of reprographic services to academic libraries.

Academic libraries support their parent institutions in teaching, research and community development. Aguolu (1989) maintains that libraries are social agencies designed to conserve knowledge, preserve cultural heritage, provide information, support education and research, and serve as fountains of recreation.

Academic libraries are libraries found in institution of high learning life the polytechnic, universities, college of education etc. academic libraries have conventional materials as well as specialized and unconventional materials that have research and educational value.

Reprography is a term that is now used in place of photoduplicating, photocopying, duplicating, printing, document reproduction or documentary reproduction.

Reproduction is the production of exact copy of a document; it is describe as the act of producing single or multiple copies of document whether by photocopying or other means.
Isaac Nnadimele OGB states that the term reprographic processes, documentary reproduction are especially used for:

  1. The production of “head” copies is the transfer of documents on to a similar kind of information carrier, generally paper of the same size.
  2. The production of microforms is the transfer of documents on to an information carrier in a smaller form, readable with the aid of technical devices.
  3. The transfer of documents on to an intermediate carrier leg stencil/ which is used for further duplication.
    In addition OGB states that reprography is one of the most important technical processes which assist documentation and the transfer of information in the library.

Also he states that the relevance for reprography is very apparent, considering that the written or printed word is the most usual form of communication within our society, and that collection and distribution of written/printed information which is the main task of library, information and documentation services is only possible when this information appears in a number of copies.

For library functions, reprography serves following purposes.

  1. For making copies for library users.
  2. In making copies for addition to the existing library stock.
  3. Can be used for inter-library lending
  4. For making copies of library guides for users or for instructions to user
  5. Useful for administrative process correspondence, communication.
  6. For preservation purposes; the original copies are preserved while the reproduced copies are made available to users.
  7. For security purpose; the original copy of a document is perfectly secured, the security reasons while the photocopy is only made available. The original copy is never given out. It minimizes theft, mutilation and pilfering of books.
  8. For publication purposes; as in micro-publishing.
  9. For document conservation or restoration purpose
  10. For acquisition purposes; libraries can photocopy or microfilm book they do not have.
Types Of Reprographic Services
i) Printing:

Printing is the process of producing identical copies on a press. In most cases the image appears reversed and turns the right reading form when the impression is made on paper.

ii) Microfilm:

Microfilm is a “microphograph on cellulose film. It may be negative or positive and may be 16mm or 35mm wide, and of any length, depending on the number of exposures here on (Harrods, 2000). Micro filming of documents may take place on automatic, semi-automatic or manually operated machines and the images of documents are recorded on 16mm or 35mm, film of up to 30 meters in length. About 3000 letter-seized documents can be accommodated on 30m for 16mm microfilm.

The microfilm camera popularly used in libraries is the planetary camera. It is a 35mm or 16mm still camera mounted on a vertical column. It takes 100ft of film at a loading and it can photograph single sheets or books. Flow camera is another microfilm camera but it’s use in libraries is restricted.

iii) Photocopying:

This method of document reproduction involves photographic process. Usually similar kind of information carrier, generally paper of the same size, is used to transfer information on one document to one or many copies.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

There are several problems bedeviling reprographic services in academic libraries, the problem have posed serious dangers to the advancement of reprographic services in academic libraries. Chief among the problems are:-

1) Accommodation:

It is always necessary to look at the accommodation available. In a library where there is not enough space for the reprographic equipments, it will affect the library in consideration of acquiring there by affecting the growth and development of the library.

2) Running Cost:

The running cost involves the cost of power supply, paper, payment made to the machine operator. These can affect the library when the founding is very poor.

3) Cost Of Equipment:

If the equipment is very costly the library might not be able to acquire such equipment for the library use.

1.3 Objectives Of Study

Considering the nature of reprographic services in academic libraries which is that of reproducing material information one sees the indispensability of reprographic services for academic libraries.

Reprographic services are needed to bridge the gap between holders of information and the large mass of people seeking this information’s.

In the course of our study, we

  1. Examine the relevance of reprographic services in academic libraries
  2. Examine the problems/challenges facing reprographic services
  3. Suggest ways of improving on reprographic services in academic libraries.

1.4 Significance Of Study

The justification for this study arises because of the continual loss of vital information which could have been saved for future purpose such as researches but have been lost because of the short comings that have faced reprographic services in academic libraries.

The role reprographic services plays in academic libraries further epitomizes its importance to the growth and development of education. Right from time reprographic services has seen of used for reproduction or replicating of document for wider out reach.

However, with recent development in academic libraries, reprographic services have assumed a more functional role in academic libraries as it is a major source of information storage and dissemination.

1.5 Scope Of The Study / Limitations

This research will only be limited to the study of the challenges in the provision of reprographic services to academic libraries. The study is based mainly on academic libraries and this academic libraries are located in institutions of higher learning e.g. universities, polytechnics, college of educations, etc. the study will be reviewed in order to find out the nature, standard, problems and prospects of the reprographic services.

The study will vigorously attempt to enumerate the reprographic services and its importance in the development of the academic libraries. It will also dead with the activities/roles of such reprographic services in the library ie photocopying, microfilming, duplicating.

Recommendation will be made on how to improve and get more of the reprographic services in the academic libraries ie university libraries.

1.6 Research Question

The basic question this research topic has attempted to answer includes:

  • Factors limiting the effectiveness of reprography.
  • What is relevance of reprographic services to academic libraries?
  • What is the position of reprographic services to academic libraries?
  • What is the impact of reprographic services to academic libraries?
  • Factors limiting the effectiveness of funding reprographic equipment in academic libraries.

1.7 Definition Of Terms

The following definitions are given to give data for understanding:

Academic Libraries:

These are libraries attached to institutions of high of learning example universities, polytechnics and colleges of education. Academic libraries are established to support teaching, learning and research, it is built at the centre of the institution and fund by government through the parent institution.

Reprographic Services:

These are services provided by reprography, when we say reprography we simply mean those method for document reproduction. It could be through photocopying, duplication or microfilming.
Therefore reprographying services are those services provided by photocopying, duplicating and microfilming; this is mainly found in documentary areas, libraries and information centers.

Reprographic Equipment:

They are photocopying machine example zeros, sharp etc duplicating machines examples are stencil, offset and spirit duplicating.
Inter-library loan:no library is an Iceland unto her seft, so therefore inter-library loan would be defined as a situation where two libraries come together with the aim of exchanging materials example Nekede and FUTO in such corporation.

Library Services:

These are services provided to users by libraries. These services include, users orientation, this is mostly in academic library’s current awareness services; this is a tend of services given when new stock is added to the library’s collection.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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