The Impact Of ICT Use On Library And Information Services Of The Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential Library, Abeokuta, Ogun State

Project and Seminar Material for Library and Information Science

The Impact Of ICT Use On Library And Information Services Of The Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential Library, Abeokuta, Ogun State


Abstract


This study investigated the impact of ICT use on library and information services of the Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State Questionnaires were designed and validated by the expert opinions of three professionals in library and information science for use in this study. The study employed descriptive survey research design. Stratified sampling technique was used in choosing the sample. Data collected from the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistical method. Based on the data collected and analyzed, findings revealed that: Staff perceived benefits of utilizing ICTs in libraries were many, with the highest rating for provision of speedy and easy access to information and for provision of more up-to-date information; The use of ICT facilities is low for library operations in olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, but is more noticeable in library administration and management and accessing online resources; both library staff and users identified inadequate ICT facilities and low level of ICT skills among staff and users as major barriers to ICT utilization in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library; and training of staff and users on ICT skills and better funding were suggested as major means of improving ICT utilization in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library. The study concluded that, libraries in Nigeria need to employ the use of ICT facilities and resources if their services are to improve.


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Concept of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
  • 2.3 Benefits of Utilization of ICTs In Libraries
  • 2.4 Concept of Utilization of ICTs In Library Operations
  • 2.5 Barriers to Effective Use of ICT In Libraries
  • 2.6 Suggestions for Improving ICT Utilization In Libraries
  • 2.7 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.7.1 Ranganathan’s Five Laws of Library Science
  • 2.7.2 Maness Library 2.0

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Result
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Recent developments globally show that Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have permeated all fields of human endeavour, including library and information services. It is perhaps for this reason that the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), as cited by Minishi-Majanja (2007) refers to ICT as a “powerful enabler of development” because of its significant impact on the economic, scientific, academic, social, political, cultural and other aspects of life. ICTs have therefore become synonymous with “development” in modern day society. According to Agaji as cited in Gujbawu (2004), the potential of Information and Communication Technology to transform development in both the underdeveloped and developed world is increasingly recognised by governments, Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), corporations and global agencies such as the United Nations (UN).
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are tools that facilitate the production, transmission and processing of information (Grace, Kemy and King, cited by Eyo, Nkanu and Nkebem, 2011). This researcher categorizes these tools to include computer facilities (computers, scanners, printers, UPS and power point projectors); computer software resources (online databases, CD-ROMs, library application software, Internet and storage media); audio-visual media/equipment (satellite connection, digital cameras, video compact disk (VCD), digital video disk (DVD) radio, television, audio tapes, video tapes and photocopiers; and communication media (telephone-intercom and global system of mobile communication (GSM). Generally speaking, ICTs consists of hardware, software, networks and media for processing, transmission and presentation of information (Eyo, Nkanu and Nkebem, 2011). Qiang as cited by Onwubiko (2011) perceives ICT as the application of communication technologies consisting of ‘’hardware, software, networks and media for the collection, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of information, via voice, data, text or images’’. A more lucid definition is that given by Onwubiko (2011) thus ‘’any technology that is used in producing, organizing and for distributing information. It is a broad-based concept that encompasses the gathering (acquisition), organization (packaging), storage and retrieval for disseminating information that can be in textual or numeric (books and documents), pictorial and vocal forms (audio-visual) using the combination of all the above (multimedia) including computers and telecommunication facilities’’ (p.62).

A public library is one which is generally funded from public sources (such as tax payers’ money). Harrod (1990) defines a public library as a library established by local, state or central government for the use of the general public. In Nigeria, public libraries function under state governments and have branches in the local government areas. A public library therefore is a library that offers services to the public, free of charge. Such services cover education, social, cultural and political information to its community, reference and information services, and selective dissemination of information (SDI). Public libraries exist in most nations of the world and are often considered an essential part of having an educated and literate population. Public libraries are important national resource with a vital role to play in establishing, nurturing and nourishing people’s love of reading. They also play an important part in life – long and informal learning, providing access to books as well as other reading materials, whether on paper or in digital form via the People’s Network (Bertot et al, 2008). According to UNESCO public library manifesto cited by Edoka, (2000):

The public library is the local centre of information, making all kinds of knowledge and information readily available to its users. The services of the public library are provided on the basis of equality of access for all, regardless of age, race, sex, religion, nationality, language or social status, specific services and materials must be provided for those users who cannot, for whatever reasons use the regular services and materials, for example, linguistic minorities, people with disabilities or people in hospital or prison (p.12).

Public libraries are distinct from research libraries, school libraries or other special libraries in that their mandate is to serve the public’s information needs generally (rather than serve a particular school, institution or research population) and offer materials for general entertainment and leisure purposes. Public libraries typically are lending libraries, allowing users to take books and other materials off the premises temporarily; they also have non- circulatory reference collections. They typically focus on popular materials such as popular fiction and movies as well as educational materials of interest to the general public (Bertot et al, 2008). The use of ICTs will further boost these services and ensure users’ satisfaction with the library service.

Public library users cut across a wide spectrum of the society. They include artisans of various types, market women, children, secondary school students, university undergraduates and students of other tertiary institutions, professionals- such as doctors, engineers, lawyers etc. It is the varied nature of public library clientele that makes it distinct from other types of libraries. For instance, the academic library caters for the students, researchers and academic staff of the institution, while the special library is concerned with the information needs of the parent organisation, particularly the researchers. Public libraries cater for all classes of citizens. They are social institutions which contain diverse sources of information on a variety of subjects to serve the information and educational needs of the public. As Onadiran (1989) notes, “the usefulness of any public library depends on its ability to serve the community and the encouragement it provides for people of all ages to educate themselves continually”.

As the only libraries that have their doors wide open for all members of the community regardless of their sex, ethnicity, creed, social or class status, age, academic qualifications, or political leanings, ICTs are tremendously impacting on public library services in developed countries. This is made possible through training courses in ICT, Computer Literacy and Information Technology (CLAIT), the European Computer Driving Licenses (ECDL) etc. (Bird and Tedd, 2000). ICTs are also employed for reader development, resource management, information literacy etc. in public libraries. This is done through training programmes developed for both staff and users. Books are selected to meet the specified criteria and links are made from the website to catalogues in certain libraries to ascertain the local availability of titles (Bird and Tedd, 2000). Job advertisements on the Internet provide job opportunities for users and there have been reported cases of users that have found jobs through the provision of Internet services in public libraries (Blake, 2003). The social impact of ICTs in public libraries is in connecting people to ICT, which in turn connects them with their communities and wider social infrastructures (Milner, 2007). ICTs have shaped identities for library staff, who are now more of information providers and facilitators than mere custodians of information/knowledge (D-Lib Magazine, 2005). According to Eve and Brophy (2000), the provision of ICT is generally perceived as a crucial development that will place library service at the heart of the UK’s emerging “information society”. Services provided by public libraries such as reference services, lending service, current awareness service, reprographic service etc. could be enhanced with the use of ICT facilities such as Internet, CD-ROMs, digitized materials, library catalogues, printers, scanners etc. The quality of library services in Nigerian public libraries will equally be enhanced when ICT usage is intensified in library operations and services.
Ghosh (2005) also shows how ICTs are affecting the services of public libraries in India. He emphasizes the need for ICT- driven public libraries in India thus:

ICT-driven public libraries act as intermediary centre for improving literacy, awareness, welfare and cultural re- awakening, it is the intention to put public libraries in the right perspective, to arrive at a single window interacted environment for information concerned with all aspects of human life (p.5).

In India as well, the emergence of rural digital libraries and application of ICTs is helping solve the problems of developing public libraries (Ghosh, 2005). Effective utilization of ICTs in Nigerian rural libraries will yield similar results.

In the same vein, Garrod (2002) examines the relevance of ICTs in the activities of agencies in the United Kingdom, such as Regional Development Agencies (RDA), Peoples Network Programme (PNP) etc. The author highlights the relevance of these agencies in skills development and the labour market and suggests that public libraries can relate with these agencies in providing ICT services and support to the general public. He concludes that libraries offer both physical access to ICT facilities and tangible media (books, radio, virtual materials etc.), and virtual access to library catalogues, community library catalogues, community information, digital or digitized materials and a host of portals and gateways aimed at making the process of locating and retrieving quality information sources as easy as possible for the public. The intensification of usage of ICTs in Nigerian public libraries will improve their services in like manner.

Emphasizing the crucial role ICTs can play in public libraries worldwide; IFLA/UNESCO guideline for development (2001) stipulates that:

Public libraries have an exciting opportunity to help everyone into this global conversation and to bridge what is often called the ‘digital divide’. They can achieve this by providing information technology for public access, by teaching basic computer skills and by participating in programmes to combat illiteracy. While becoming the gateway to the electronic information world should be a key objective for the public library, every effort must be made not to close other doors through which knowledge and information can be provided (p.9).

It is therefore apparent that the utilization of ICTs in public libraries ensures quality service to users. It can also extend library services beyond the walls of the library.

IFLA Guidelines for Public Libraries (2000) emphasizes that “planning library development from a service, rather than building perspective is important in all public library policy development. The provision of services using information and communication technology also presents exciting opportunities to take library and information services direct to the home and work place”. Public libraries in developed countries have embraced this challenge and have taken the lead in utilizing ICTs in processing and managing information resources and providing services to users efficiently. If the IFLA mandate on libraries without walls can be implemented in developed countries, then developing countries (including Nigeria) can equally achieve same with adequate financial and moral support from the relevant authorities.

The ICT facilities that are expected in a public library include computer facilities (computers, scanners, printers, UPS, and power point projectors), computer software resources (online databases, CD-ROMs, library application software, Internet connectivity and storage media), audio-visual media/equipment (satellite connection, radio, television, audio tapes, video tapes, DVD/VCD, digital cameras and photocopiers) and communication media (telephone-intercom and GSM). Gama (2007) also categorized these facilities by medium into five groups as follows: computing facilities and services; film/tape-based facilities – microfiche reader, micro card reader, microprint reader, slide projector, reel to reel recorder, tape recorder, video machine etc; reproduction facilities – photocopying machine, duplicating machine etc; telecommunication facilities – telephone, GSM, telex, telegram, fax machine, satellite etc; broadcasting facilities – radio, television, cable transmission (e.g. CNN, BBC, Al-jazeera). Hamelink as cited by Anansi (2003) categorized ICTs by usage into four viz: capturing technologies, communication technologies, storage technologies, and display technologies; while Islam and Islam (2007) gave another concise classification of ICTs by usage as follows: ICT-based resources, including computers connected to Internet, CD-ROM, audio cassettes, video-cassettes, photocopiers, printers, software used by libraries etc; ICT- based activities, including data processing, circulation, cataloguing, bibliography, serial control, in-house database; and ICT-based library service including CD-ROM searching, online information service, news clipping, scanning service, online reservation services etc.

Having gotten an insight into the ICT facilities and services that are available in public libraries, the purposes for which users utilize ICTs in public libraries include the following: accessing educational information for self development; keeping abreast with current news, events etc; Internet browsing; downloading and storing information for personal use; word processing; sending and receiving e-mail; knowledge of other peoples’ culture; and social networking.

The public library is a potent democratic institution that brings people from all walks of life together in their bid for information, education and continuous self-development. Every effort, therefore, must be made to enhance the quality of its services and make them more effective and efficient. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) play a crucial role in all sectors of the society and have radically transformed the role of public libraries in developed countries. Through ICTs public libraries are providing more sophisticated and user friendly services to their patrons. ICTs can afford public library users the opportunity for cultural expression and personal fulfillment through lifelong learning. The benefits of ICTs in public libraries are also evident in programmes in computer literacy and information technology, reader development, resource management, information literacy, access to wider social infrastructure and job opportunities that are available through the Internet. Other benefits of utilizing ICTs in public libraries include: enabling users self education through Internet and its multimedia resources, provision of speedy and easy access to information, provision of access to unlimited and up-to-date information from different sources, increases efficiency in library operations and services, facilitate cooperation and formation of library networks, provision of round the clock and remote access of information to users, and facilitation of reformation and combination of data from different sources.

Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can also improve public library operations and services when utilized. For example, library application software are used in automating routine tasks in acquisition, cataloguing, circulation, serials control and similar functions, thereby reducing manual effort in executing these tasks and increasing productivity. Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) allows users virtual access to huge library collections all over the world. CD-ROMs and DVDs/VCDs are used in providing better reference service and in information management. Similarly, Internet is a powerful ICT facility that is useful in providing effective reference service, e-mail, web information, and enables social networking through social media such as face book, twitter, YouTube, etc. More important is that the Internet and satellite connection have eliminated geographical barriers and made the world a global village, with the later allowing public libraries to interact and network with other information outfits. Digital cameras are used to capture important events and stored for use in public libraries, while satellite or cable information provides round the clock news and other events around the world. Therefore, utilization of ICTs in public libraries will enhance the quality of their operations and services and lead to users’ satisfaction.

However, a survey in ten countries of Anglo-phone Africa on the use of ICT in African public libraries (Chisenga, 2004) revealed that most public libraries are inadequately funded to procure ICT facilities, lack skilled manpower with ICT knowledge, do not have ICT strategies and policies, and are not committed to implementation of ICT projects. This situation is appalling given the crucial role public libraries play in informing and educating the public. While the literature to do with ICT use satisfaction in public libraries reveal high satisfaction among public library users in developed countries of United Kingdom (U.K.) and United States (U.S.) (Tedd, 2003; Spacey and Murray, 2003; Bird and Tedd, 2004), inadequate provision of ICT facilities in Nigerian public libraries is resulting in low satisfaction among its users.

The current situation, from the researcher’s observation is that the availability of ICT facilities in public libraries in Nigeria is grossly inadequate and its utilization equally poor. The ICT facilities that are mostly available in Nigerian public libraries are computers, UPS, printers, and scanners, and these are used in library administration and management, and for word processing. Essential ICT facilities such as Internet connectivity, online database, CD- ROMs, DVDs/VCDs, and library application software are rarely available. The researcher has had a long working experience in a public library before moving to an academic library. It is the pathetic situation of ICT facilities and services in Nigerian public libraries that motivated the researcher to conduct this study. The population of the study comprises public libraries (including branch libraries) in the 36 state library boards in the Nigeria, public library users and public library staff, which includes librarians and library officers.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Public libraries, generally, function to support individual and self-education as well as formal education at all levels by providing non-fiction materials. They also exist to create and encourage reading habits in children and adults alike, through the provision of rich fiction collection that would stimulate reading for recreation and leisure. In Nigeria, public libraries are supposed to be in the forefront of encouraging individual and self-education with robust non-fiction collection, especially given the limited chance that is available for formal education in institutions of higher learning in the country. But this is hardly the case due to the poor state of facilities in public libraries. The use of ICT facilities in public libraries in Nigeria, therefore, has the potential of improving their present situation and making them better positioned to fulfill their role in the society – being to inform, educate and provide for recreational needs of their users by providing the relevant information resources.

The literature concerning ICT utilization in library operations and services show that libraries of all kinds in Nigeria are not utilizing ICTs as effectively as those in developed countries. Public libraries in particular do not seem to use them in providing services to their users as effectively as their counterparts in academic and special libraries. The consequences of not utilizing ICTs in public libraries are that they will deny users access to the full range of resources available through newer technologies and their services will not meet the needs of users. As a result, users may not be satisfied. Similarly, they would not be able to achieve self-actualization or their life goals. Consequently, public libraries in Nigeria may not be able to make their impact on national development. This study therefore examined the impact of ICT use on library and information services of the Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to assess the impact of ICT use on library and information services of the Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State.

Specifically, the objectives of the study include to;

  1. Determine the benefits of utilizing ICTs in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State.
  2. Determine the extent to which ICTs are utilized for various operations in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State.
  3. Identify barriers to effective use of ICT in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State.
  4. Proffer strategies for enhancing ICT utilization in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State.

1.4 Research Question

The following research questions are formulated to guide this research:

  1. What are the benefits of utilizing ICTs in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State?
  2. To what extent are ICTs utilized for various operations in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State?
  3. What are the barriers to effective use of ICT in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State?
  4. What are the strategies for enhancing ICT utilization in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  1. HO1 There is no significant impact of ICT use on library and information services of the Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State
  2. HA1 There is a significant impact of ICT use on library and information services of the Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of the study will be significant to the following: librarians in public libraries, public library managers (Directors of State Library Services), state governments, and researchers. In specific terms the findings will be useful to librarians in public libraries in the sense that they can apply the recommendations in improving the performance of their operations and services to library users. It will also enable them be up-to-date with current practices in public librarianship, thus fully equipping them to render efficient services to library patrons.

Public library managers, who are often addressed as Directors of Library Services in their states are the link between the library services and state governments. The findings of this study will serve as a reference document or tool for the library managers in educating the state governments on the need to adequately fund public libraries in respect of providing ICT services and facilities. It will also enable public library managers to be equipped with the knowledge of state-of the-art technology in library management, thus enhancing their managerial ability in managing information and human resources.

State governments are usually responsible for providing public library services to the public in their domain. The findings of the study will therefore assist state governments in formulating policies on ICT utilization and services in public libraries. The findings will also enable them appreciate the role of ICTs in enhancing public library operations and services, and consequently enable them be more responsive to their grievances.

The findings of the study will be useful to researchers in the field of librarianship and information science by allowing them identify the gap (s) that need filling. It will also afford researchers the opportunity to see the link or relationship of this study with other studies that have been conducted in the area and enable them identify the areas that need further investigation. This work is the researcher’s contribution to existing knowledge in ICT services in libraries and will serve as a useful resource material for researchers. Finally, the study may lend further support to the theory, specifically Library 2.0, by examining whether effective utilization of ICTs in libraries involves the input of both staff and users. If answered in the affirmative, this would support the theory’s tenet of being interactive and communally innovative as a means of sustaining the library’s viability.


1.7 Scope of Study

The study was conducted in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State. The content of the study will be limited to the impact of ICT use on library and information services.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of this study, the researcher encountered some limitations. There was unwillingness of respondents to fill the questionnaires. Some of the copies questionnaires were also reported missing and it was severally replaced and this affected the researcher negatively finance wise. Also, the researcher faced time constraints and had to combine the research with other academic activities and coursework. Lastly, the researcher selected a case study since all the public libraries could not be exhausted.


1.9 Definition of Terms

ICT:

Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage and audiovisual, that enable users to access, store, transmit, understand and manipulate information.

Library and Information Services:

Refers to the procedures and operations of maintaining, developing and supporting library collection and services behind the scene such as acquisition, cataloguing, classification, inter library loan, document delivery and serial systems.

Library:

Refers to a building or room containing collections of books, periodicals, and sometimes films and recorded music for use or borrowing by the public or the members of an institution.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This study was carried out to assess the impact of ICT use on library and information services of the Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, Abeokuta, Ogun State. Based on the analysis of data presented in tables 1-4, responses obtained from structured interview schedule and observations made by the researcher, the following major findings are made:

  1. Staff perceived benefits of utilizing ICTs in libraries were many, with the highest rating for provision of speedy and easy access to information and for provision of more up-to-date information.
  2. The use of ICT facilities is low for library operations in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library, but is more noticeable in library administration and management and accessing online resources.
  3. Both library staff and users identified inadequate ICT facilities and low level of ICT skills among staff and users as major barriers to ICT utilization in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library.
  4. Training of staff and users on ICT skills and better funding were suggested as major means of improving ICT utilization in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library.

5.2 Conclusion

The findings of this study have been very revealing of the scenario of ICT utilization in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library. That the ICT facilities available in Olusegun Obasanjo Presidential library are mostly computer facilities and audio-visual media/equipment and are utilized more in library administration and management. There is minimal usage of ICT in technical and reader services. Most public libraries do not have adequate ICT facilities that should warrant effective and efficient provision of services to users and that those that have them were not using them effectively for the benefit of users. However, users were moderately satisfied with the ICT facilities in public libraries that have them, most especially with facilities such as Internet connectivity, VCDs/DVDs and CD-ROMs. It shows that users were utilizing these facilities to access information for their personal development and keeping abreast with current news and events.

The research has exposed the deplorable situation of ICT facilities in public libraries in Nigeria. In addition, it has showed that without updated ICT and management skills, even funding and facility building in libraries will not yield maximum benefit to users and staff. Finally, the study has corroborated the tenet of Library 2.0 theory of being interactive and communally innovative as a means of sustaining the library’s viability.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, the following are recommended;

  1. State governments in Nigeria should make funds available to public libraries to enable them procure ICT facilities and resources in their libraries.
  2. Public library authorities in Nigeria should allocate at least 20% of their budget for developing ICT facilities, resources and services in their libraries. To this end, public libraries should partner with other agencies in ensuring the provision of ICT facilities in their libraries.
  3. Public library authorities should sponsor their staff to ICT- related workshops and seminars in order for them to be current with best practices. Workshops/Seminars on ICT literacy and skills should be organized on regular basis for library users by public libraries.
  4. Public libraries should update staff and users on recent ICT innovations or developments through notices or bulletin boards, pamphlets, fliers and websites (where available).
  5. Public libraries should formulate ICT policy or strategy as a means of guiding them in providing ICT services.

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