Revenue Generation In Academic Libraries (A Case Study Of Kashim Ibrahim Library A.B.U Zaria)

Project and Seminar Material for Library and Information Science

Revenue Generation In Academic Libraries (A Case Study Of Kashim Ibrahim Library A.B.U Zaria)


Abstract


This study was carried out on revenue generation in academic libraries using Kashim Ibrahim Library A.B.U Zaria as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of library staff in Kashim Ibrahim Library A.B.U Zaria. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 41 respondents and 35were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that academic libraries are not adequately funded by parent institutions. The study also revealed that academic libraries rely on other sources of revenue generation to meek financial needs. Furthermore, the study revealed that the sources of revenue generation for academic libraries comprises of users’ registration fee, government subvention, fine for late returns and replacement charges, grants from TET fund, photocopy from library materials, donation from NGO etc. Therefore, academic library should develop policies at institutional and governmental levels that would allow more effective income generation.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigerian University Libraries are forever attempting to secure adequate funds to catch up with the scope of its prerogative services. Where fund available is shared as in many universities, according to departments, there is not much of the unallocated pool for the library to dip into, in acquiring a depth of materials to cover an extensive range of collection for the university. In the best of time, Nigerian academic libraries are not receiving the funding that would make them attain their potentials and to be efficient and effective. Locality’s research and consultation conducted revealed that the majority of Nigerians’ libraries were not comfortable with the idea of income generation or ‘enterprising’ activities undertaken within a library context where the aim is library service enhancement or innovation. Furthermore, many academic libraries regarded income generation as essential to maintain acceptable levels of service in the context of users’ satisfactions and underlined the challenges they face as a result of declining revenues from ‘traditional’ value add services. Single approach could not be relied upon where any income generation strategy for Nigerian academic libraries is concerned, unless a concerted effort were made to up-scale one or more of them significantly and beyond what can be demonstrated from current practice in Nigeria. An academic library in Nigeria when compared with another in developed country is a nonprofit organisation and its mission is to provide services to users. Income generation for academic libraries in Nigeria is largely through government allocations to the overseeing ministries or institutions.

Fredrick (2010) stated that inadequate budgets, coupled with insufficient income generation in libraries and information centres in recent years have inhibited the growth of these libraries. For academic library to perform its statutory functions effectively it is necessary that library must be involved in fee-based services to supplement any shortfall from the government and other funding agencies. According to Okiy (2005) opined that government funding has been poor, requiring libraries to look for alternative sources of income to meet the increasingly sophisticated demand of library users for electronic information services. Adebayo, (2012) posited that traditional concept of a library has been redefined from a place to access paper records or books to one that also houses the most advanced electronic resources, including the internet, digital libraries, and remote access to a wide range of information sources. The aims of a well organised academic library in the fulfilment of its function as a repository of information and knowledge, dynamic centre for research for people and dissemination of information to the citizens can only be achieved if library can generate enough income. The revenue generation in Nigerian libraries call for reexamination.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

As a result of the severe financial constraints under which all academic libraries suffer, there has been a move to find additional sources of fund. In Nigeria academic libraries, both government and private own libraries, the situations are not different as inadequate grants severely affected library and others information services. In the case of state universities, the grant is released by the governments to the university committee on quarterly instalments or monthly as the case may be. This method has not helped to meet the financial needs of library on time. Most of the time library management purchase few copies of books and journals as against the required number if fund at their disposal is adequate and can be accessed easily. Also, large number of collections of broken down computers and other information technology facilities are not adequately maintained because of insufficient fund. Finally, lack of fund put the library’s staff at a disadvantage of attending workshop, seminars and conferences which could enhance their productivity and professionalism. This study therefore investigates revenue generation in academic libraries in Nigeria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the revenue generation in academic libraries: a case study of Kashim Ibrahim Library A.B.U Zaria. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Determine whether academic libraries are adequately funded by parent institutions.
  2. Determine whether academic libraries rely on other sources of revenue generation to meek financial needs.
  3. Ascertain the sources of revenue generation for academic libraries.
  4. Identify the challenges for inadequate income generation in academic library.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. Are academic libraries are adequately funded by parent institutions?
  2. Do academic libraries rely on other sources of revenue generation to meek financial needs?
  3. What are the sources of revenue generation for academic libraries?
  4. What are the challenges for inadequate income generation in academic library?

1.5 Significance of the Study

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the effectiveness of television in reporting of banditry operation in Nigeria.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the revenue generation in academic libraries using Kashim Ibrahim Library A.B.U Zaria as a case study. However, the study will further determine whether academic libraries are adequately funded by parent institutions; determine whether academic libraries rely on other sources of revenue generation to meek financial needs, ascertain the sources of revenue generation for academic libraries, and identify the challenges for inadequate income generation in academic library.

The respondents for this study will be obtained from library staff in Kashim Ibrahim Library A.B.U Zaria.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Academic Library:

Library Built in college of university for student use.

Funding:

Making money available for the running of librarians.

Librarians:

Professional staff in charge of the library.

Acquisition:

Collecting of library materials.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into revenue generation in academic libraries using Kashim Ibrahim Library A.B.U Zaria as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine revenue generation in academic libraries using Kashim Ibrahim Library A.B.U Zaria as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at determine whether academic libraries are adequately funded by parent institutions, determine whether academic libraries rely on other sources of revenue generation to meek financial needs, ascertain the sources of revenue generation for academic libraries, and identify the challenges for inadequate income generation in academic library.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are library staff in Kashim Ibrahim Library A.B.U Zaria.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Academic libraries are not adequately funded by parent institutions.
  2. Academic libraries rely on other sources of revenue generation to meek financial needs.
  3. The sources of revenue generation for academic libraries comprises of users’ registration fee, government subvention, fine for late returns and replacement charges, grants from TET fund, photocopy from library materials, donation from NGO, publication produced by library, book sales to endowments, services, sales, and academic events, and computerized catalogs and databases, searching and printing
  4. The challenges for inadequate income generation in academic library include; inadequate funding by parent institute, library has no policy in respect of income generation, regulations by university management to control, library’s budget, academic is not a profit/business-oriented, and unable to liaise with foreign donor agencies.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Academic library should develop policies at institutional and governmental levels that would allow more effective income generation.
  2. There should be adequate provision of e-resource tools in separate sections of the library where income can be generate.
  3. The library should provide aggressive information needs and sources that will meet the need of users and charge fees for specific services, to alleviate the effect of lack of income generation.
  4. Librarians should understand the principle of marketing of information products to the respective users since the academic library is a gateway for information development.

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