The Effect Of Motivation On Workers Productivity In Public Sector (A Case Study Enugu State Public Service From 1995 To 2008)

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Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


I dedicated this research work to God, almighty for his mercy endurance to mankind. And also to my parent Mr. & Mrs. Anthony Nnaji, my inlaw Nnaji Emmanuel okey and the rest of my families who supported me financially, I pray that God almighty will guid and provide for their needs in Jesus name Amen.


There is no way the researcher can alone claim all the credits for the successful completion of this empirical research work..

Consequently, this opportunity is used to generally thank all these who have in one way or the other, directly or indirectly contributed to the final success of the research; especially my able supervisor,

Obinna whose ideas though., tires -one gave me an in depth knowledge of re-arranging and giving a fresh touch to every bit of the work with an unfailing assiduity.

Table Of Contents

  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table Of Contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose Of The Study
  • 1.4 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.5 Scope Of The Study
  • 1.6 Limitations Of The Study

Chapter Two

  • Literature Review
  • 2.1 Conceptualize Definition Of Motivation
  • 2.2 Nature Of Work Environment
  • 2.3 Leadership /Leadership Stieglitz Approach
  • 2.4 The Needs And Expectations Of Workers And The Search For Paid Employment
  • 2.5 Satisfying The Expectations Of The Workers

Chapter Three

  • Research Methodology
  • 3.1 Theoretical Framework
  • 3.2 Research Design Stud Used
  • 3.3 Population Of The Study
  • 3.4 Sample And Sampling Technique
  • 3.5 Method & Sources Of Data Collection
  • 3.6 Validity Of The Instrument Used
  • 3.7 Reliability Of The Instrument Used
  • 3.8 Administration Of The Questionnaire
  • 3.9 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

  • Data Presentation And Analysis
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation And Analysis Of Data Results
  • 4.3 Summary Of The Findings

Chapter Five

  • Summary, Recommendations And Conclusions
  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Appendices

Chapter One

1.1 Introduction

According to Denga, motivation is the internal force that ignites, pokes, energizes, spurs, also directs regulates and sustains human behaviour. Also according to IBekwe motivation is a function which management performs to stimulate employees effectiveness to the achievement of objective,

For any public servant fully put in his best in the service, there must be a propelling force and force and this propelling force in the civil service terminology MOTIVATION. The importance of the public services and indeed the revlance of the public servant in any economic set-up need not to be overemphasized. This is because the attainment of the national objectives of any state largely depends on the matter of obtaining the willingness of the public servants to put-up good productivity.

Nevertheless highly paramount in every organization to be it public or private sector is good leadership. The said leadership should be able to provide the necessarily needed inspiring force in the form of motivational facilities such that can offer the management the opportunity of obtaining the required compliance and efficient performance of the workers which will in turn bring about the achievement of the expected organizational goals.
The public servants in enugu state as the vehicle to state and national development lack this case-fuelling lubrication and law productivity.

In fact, there has never been any year or regime. That has passed since 1992 without remarkable government/ labour crises in enugu state to the detriment of effective and improved productivity as constant disputes and struggles normally western the system

In Enugu state, the public servants are never sure of what will happen next and the government never cares whatever happens. Strike, the last resort to the workers, has become a regular issue. Petty tradand farming in and around the offices survival. Consequently, the rendition of effective productive productivity by public servants to the public dwindles.

1.2 Statement Of Problem

The public is largely worried over the continuous low level of unman capacity development and utilization among public servants in Enugu state. The civil service, which indisputably is the hallmark and engine room for unequalled development in any civil society is treated with levity and reckless abandons in enugu state. It is dishearting to note that both the military administers and elected public office holders seated at the helms of the affairs of the state had never recognized. The need for adequate motivation of the workers in the areas of prompt payment salaries and allowances, leave benefit and other sundry needs.

The book of Deuteronomy 24:14-15 in the holy Bible (RSV:1952) clearly stipulates God’s laws on labour and productivity where it categorically state :

You shall not oppress a hired servant who is poor and needy, whether he is one of your brethren or on of the sojourners who are in your land within your town, you shall give him his live on the day (month) he earns it, before the sum set (for he is poor, and sset his heart upon it, lest he crises against you to the lord, and it be sin in you ).
Contrary to this law, the public servants in the state are subjected to ill-motivation and are created by their employers are willing tools that are used dumped at will leading theories and studies on motivation according to chukuemeka etal (1998:38) hence ostensibly rate is predominantly determined by the level of motivation inherent in his work place public servants in enugu state lack adequate motivation.

Unfortunately, the effects of this lackadaisical state of affairs are grave. In referring to oscar lewis’ “culture of poverty; adebayo Adebayo (1989:9) agreed with the fact that paramount among these effects are that productivity is lowered, human development is halted, career civil servants are impoverished and demoralized while national growth and development are by extension hampered and threatened.

Also with references to data collected from research questipon, number two (2). With particular attention to items seventeen (17) thereof, and attested to mgbo (2002) head of civil service, Enugu state there have been incessant labour/ government confrontations resulting in uncontrollable strike action with their attendant work stoppages, discentcharitment and incalculable los of sense of dedication to duty among various workers.

These controversies and anomalies underscored the centered on how best to motivation public servants in enugu state to ensure maximum productivity, for this purpose therefore, the following research questions hereby formed to elucidate an unbiased and accurate data from the targeted population and they include:

  1. How are the workers in the employment of enugu state public service motivated from 1995 to 2008?
  2. What is the effect of the motivational programme of the state government on the general performance of the workers?
  3. What is the nature of the existing relationship between the employers and the public employees in enugu state?

1.3 Purpose Of The Study

In fact, from the grand sense of honesty, the ways and manners in which things have been going on in be desired, especially as regards to worker’s productivity. The researcher as an effected public servant himself and whom the state inherited from the former anambra state is of the apprehension that something is wrong with the level of performance of the present public servants in the state.consequently, he developed the inquisitively and then the desire to find out what exactly are the causes of the study therefore are hereby classified who there as follow;

  1. To investigate how the workers in the Enugu state public service are motivation from 1995-2008.
  2. Examine the impact of the motivational programme adopted by the state government on the performance of the workers.
  3. And to between the employers and the public in enugu state.

1.4 Significance Of The Study

An accurate diagnosis of an ailment serves as a prelude to the cure of the disease while prescription initiates the achievement of the cure itself The choice of the effect of motivation of productivity of public sector in enugu estate at this material time is bone out of the persisting prevailing circumstance of general perception of poor productivity and constant labour disput and unrests involving the public servants and the various past and present governmental regimes in the state since 1992.

This situation results in general poor productivity of the public servants, low productivity and general developmental backwardness of the state. The desire to being the happenings in the state public sector into the mainstream of academic focus and to x- ray major problems responsible or otherwise for the long dragging inherent poor productivity in the researcher who is himself a concerned public sector.

This entails identifying the various instruments of motivational techniques available for good management of far public work-force and examining how far these instruments of motivational techniques available for good management of like public work-force and examining how far these instruments have been into proper utilization or otherwise towards reading effective and efficient productivity necessary for the production of services expected of the workers by the general public in the development of the nation and the staff in particular.

This examination is geared toward finding out solutions and making suggestion that will beef-up effective and & efficient performance of the public servants in the state for the realization of national objectives beneficent to the people generally.

Significantly, the general public who are always fond of casting spells on the frustrated poor public servants acusing them of ineffective and inefficient in the productivity of their duties (to the productivity of their duties (to the general public) will now be able to see and understanding the actual truth and directional source of the vicious problem so that blame should be correctly apportioned to the appropriate place.

There is no gain emphasizing that the public and where those at the helms of the affairs of propelling the locomotive engines shirk in their duties, the train details. The general public as well as those in authority ought to know this fact very well.

Apart from letting the federal publi8c fir whose services the public for whose services the position the establishment one stood for, know the position the public servant in enugu state find themselves in the course of providing the services required of them, both the various levels of government in the state will find the solution and Suggestions the research will proffer useful in the course of rendering the require good government to the people o the state through a well motivated work force.

Again, since the business of the modern government is a very complex one which must be carried out by the public servants to the credit or discredit of the (chief ) Executive, this research will all the more help those in government, their subordinates more help those in government, their subordinates and agencies in the formulation and executive of achievable policies using the knowledge of proper instruments of motivation appropriately on the public servants.

Also upon raising performance is the expectation that productivity will rise. The increase in productivity will rise. The increase in productivity through performance, an outcome proper understanding and application is an indication the nature of existing relationship between the employees in Enugu state.

1.6 Limitation Of The Study

In virtually everything one does in life, there are some limitations consequently, in pursuance to the successful completion of this study within a given period of time, certain limitations posed some serious threats to the research. Among the were the problems of insufficient availability of funds for proper conduct of such study work at such a period of bumper inflation in the country.

Other problems include lack of easy accessibility to desired vital government documents as a result of unco-operative attitude of some government officials. This may not unconnected with keeping with ethics of oath of secrecy applicable to certain public offices

Times limit as well as scarcity of local reference materials (book)in the area of the research also, posed some limitations to the study.

I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic

Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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