Assessment Of Socio-Economic Status And The Utilization Of Traditional Herbs In The Treatment Of Malaria

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Assessment Of Socio-Economic Status And The Utilization Of Traditional Herbs In The Treatment Of Malaria


Abstract


This study was carried out to assess socio-economic status and the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria using Idiroko Town Of Ipokia Local government, Ogun State as a case study. To achieve this, 5 significant research objectives were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of Idiroko Town in Ipokia Local Government, Ogun State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147respondents while 141 were received and validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection.

The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent to which traditional herbs are used in the treatment of malaria in Idiroko Town is high. The findings also revealed that the use of herbs in the treatment of malaria is influenced by socioeconomic status. And specifically, income level influences the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria. In regard to the findings, the study recommends that policy should incorporate traditional care into the general utilisation framework and recognise that strategies which will encourage wider utilisation of modern health services over traditional care, whilst high levels of poverty will see continued use of traditional care.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2019), malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The World Malaria Report 2018 showed that fifteen countries in sub- Saharan Africa and India carried almost 80% of the global malaria burden with five countries accounting for nearly half of all malaria cases worldwide: Nigeria (25%), Democratic Republic of the Congo (11%), Mozambique (5%), India (4%) and Uganda (4%). Of these, Nigeria, Madagascar and the Democratic Republic of the Congo had the highest estimated increases, all greater than half a million cases (WHO, 2018). A close look at these statistics places Nigeria as the country with the highest malaria burden globally. The female anopheles mosquitoes (which abound in the region) are carriers of the plasmodium parasite and they spread the infection by injecting the plasmodium into the bloodstream of the individual. This parasite can live up to 30 days in the body but are not spread from person to person except in pregnancy (Nwanze, 2017). Malaria kills more than 400,000 people annually in the tropics than any other infectious diseases (Erhun et al., 2014). Although the incidence rate of malaria declined globally between 2010 and 2017, from 72 to 59 cases per 1000 population at risk, Nigeria was listed among the 10 highest burden countries in Africa with reported increases in cases of malaria in 2017 compared with 2016 (WHO World Malaria Report, 2018). with respect to deaths caused by malaria, in 2015, 90% of malaria cases and 92% of malaria deaths occurred in Africa (WHO, 2016). In the 2018 World Malaria Report, Nigeria accounted for 19% of the global death burden of malaria (WHO, 2018).

Malaria is prevalent in rural areas due to favorable environmental conditions for parasite transmission as presence of bushes, stagnant water and use of open containers to preserve water for home use especially during the raining season; however, there is significant risk of infection in urban areas (De Silva and Marshal, 2012). Uncontrolled urbanization leads to an increased number of slums simulating a rural environment and results in increased malaria transmission in some third world urban areas especially in Nigeria. The presence of swamps, gutters and thick vegetation in such environment enhances the breeding of vectors. The problem of rural- urban migration, presence of poverty in the population, environmental degradation and challenges of providing decent housing, portable water, sanitation and transportation are common in many Nigerian cities and they cumulatively encourage risks of malaria infection.

Traditional healers have, over generations, earned the confidence in quite a large number of Africans in the treatment of several ailments (Nwanze, 2017). More often than not, they serve as the first point of call in the community when sicknesses and diseases come calling. This practice with its obvious imperfections has been the only means Africans could rely upon until just more than half a century ago when allopathic medical practice started gaining its foothold in different parts of the continent. Yet the traditional practice appears not to have really given way to the scientifically proven medical procedures and practices a decade into the 21st century.

In Nigeria and several other parts of Africa, traditional healers have continued to be involved in the treatment of malaria and malaria related ailments (MRI) (Erhun et al., 2014). The fact that most of these procedures have no verifiable proof of any measurable success, and the tendency for a likelihood of wrong or misdiagnosis, proper treatment of malaria by these practitioners becomes doubtful. Furthermore, the potency of these drugs, content of impurities and, immediate and long term oncogenic and teratogenic properties are usually unknown. Also, the unwillingness or delays in referral has been found to further increase the mortalities associated with malaria and has further impeded the overall control and prevention process. This scenario has also been blamed as a contributory factor towards the obviously slow pace of the progress of “roll back malaria” (RBM) programme in most parts of Africa (Erhun et al., 2014).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Traditional medicine use raises particular concerns about its safety. Exposure to chemicals such as herbs and supplements could affect lives (Bercaw et al., 2010) and this could contribute to maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite these known concerns by health professionals, many people using traditional medicine in treating malaria do not disclose use of herbal medicines to their health care providers, although some herbal medicine used have been reported to have been recommended by health care providers (Duru et al., 2016). In urban slums, the environmental condition favors the breeding of mosquitoes. In addition, there may be the problems of accessibility, affordability and acceptability of orthodox medical services including antenatal services. This study therefore aimed at assessing the socioeconomic status and the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to assess the socioeconomic status and the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria. Specifically, other objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine the extent of malaria prevalence in Nigeria.
  2. To determine the extent traditional herbs is used in the treatment of malaria in Nigeria.
  3. To determine whether educational background influence the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria.
  4. To determine whether income level influence the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria.
  5. To determine whether community beliefs influence the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions will be answered in this study:

  1. To what extent is malaria prevalence in Nigeria?
  2. To what extent is traditional herbs used in the treatment of malaria in Nigeria?
  3. Does educational background influence the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria?
  4. Does income level influence the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria?
  5. Does community beliefs influence the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following statements will be validated in the course of this study;

  • H01: Traditional herbs are not used in the treatment of malaria in Nigeria.
  • H02: The use of herbs in the treatment of malaria is not influenced by socioeconomic status.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will be mostly useful to the society as the findings of this study will expose and enlighten us on the basic and general knowledge of malaria, its causes, and the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria. More so, this study will add to the body of existing literature on the topic of concern, thus, will be useful to researchers, medical and none medical students, and other intellectuals who may wish to carry put a study on a related topic.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the assessment of socioeconomic status and the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria. Specifically, this study focuses on determining the extent of malaria prevalence in Nigeria, determining the extent traditional herbs is used in the treatment of malaria in Nigeria, determining whether educational background affects the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria, determining whether income level affects the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria and determining whether community beliefs affects the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria. The study will be carried out in Idiroko Town Of Ipokia Local government, Ogun State.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Malaria:

Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans.

Traditional Medicine:

Traditional medicine comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within the folk beliefs of various societies, before the era of modern medicine.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the assessment of socio-economic status and the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria using Idiroko Town Of Ipokia Local government, Ogun State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the assessment of socio-economic status and the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria using Idiroko Town Of Ipokia Local government, Ogun State as a case study.The study is was specifically carried out to; determine the extent of malaria prevalence in Nigeria, determine the extent traditional herbs is used in the treatment of malaria in Nigeria, determine whether educational background influence the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria, determine whether income level influence the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria, and determine whether community beliefs influence the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were residents of Idiroko Town in Ipokia Local Government, Ogun State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent to which malaria is prevalent in Nigeria is high.
  2. Traditional herbs are used in the treatment of malaria in Idiroko Town.
  3. The extent to which traditional herbs are used in the treatment of malaria in Idiroko Town is high.
  4. The use of herbs in the treatment of malaria is influenced by socioeconomic status.
  5. Educational background influences the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria.
  6. Income level influences the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria.
  7. Community beliefs influence the utilization of traditional herbs in the treatment of malaria.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. To minimize harm of blind use of traditional herbs, it is necessary to fully integrate and regulate traditional medicine to ensure high standard, safety quality and rational use.
  2. Policy should incorporate traditional care into the general utilisation framework and recognise that strategies which will encourage wider utilisation of modern health services over traditional care, whilst high levels of poverty will see continued use of traditional care.

Assessment Of Socio-Economic Status And The Utilization Of Traditional Herbs In The Treatment Of Malaria


Project Material Download


₦5,000


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦5,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($30)
GHANA – Make Payment of 120 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | 08143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Assessment Of Socio-Economic Status And The Utilization Of Traditional Herbs In The Treatment Of Malaria

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply

  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Disclaimer


This research material “Assessment Of Socio-Economic Status And The Utilization Of Traditional Herbs In The Treatment Of Malaria” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Assessment Of Socio-Economic Status And The Utilization Of Traditional Herbs In The Treatment Of Malaria” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.