An Assessment On The Prevalence Of Abortion Among Teenage Girls

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

An Assessment On The Prevalence Of Abortion Among Teenage Girls


Abstract


The research is carried out on factor that affecting the teenage abortion and causes and Health education on prevalence of Abortion among teenage girls has been taking appropriately, maintenance of teenage girls at the age of 12-18 years should be care for from his parents and make sure to decrease teenage mortality rate. Related literature was also reviewed by different authors like definition of abortion, effect of abortion, causes of abortion and factors that contribute to teenage abortion. Survey design, the target populations of this research are prevalence of abortion among teenage girls, the sample technique was used for distribution of 50 questionnaires in the study area, the method of data collection was questionnaire, data was collected and analyzed through percentage. The finding shows that to health educate the people in the community about the effect of teenage abortion is background of the programme because when people are well educated they will comply with any programme that will help them in their life. Government should assist in the provision of facilities required by various primary health care units. Local government council having identified the danger prompting youths should organize sensitization workshops. Public enlightenment for the youth, Government Parents, health workers, Communities need to put hand together in controlling moral behaviours among teenage girls.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Pregnancy is the common name for gestation in humans. It is the development of one or more offspring, known as an embryo or fetus in the uterus (Wikipedia 2009). Pregnancy usually lasts for about nine (9) months in human beings. At this stage the embryo is developing offspring during the first 8 weeks following conception, and subsequently the term fetus is used until child birth. In many societies, medical or legal definitions of human pregnancy is somewhat arbitrarily divided into three trimester periods of three months each as a means to simplify reference to the different stages of pre-natal development. The first trimester carries the highest risk of miscarriage (natural death of embryo or fetus). During the second trimester the development of the fetus can be more easily monitored and diagnosed. The third trimester is marked by further growth of the fetus and the development of fetal fat stores (Wikipedia 2009).

Teenage pregnancy is a major public health and social problem the world over and its incidence is on the increase (Aboyeji 1997, Boyd 2000). Concern about the increase in unmarried adolescent pregnancy has been expressed throughout Africa (Letanro 1993). There is consensus that this is a phenomenon with detrimental effects for African society. The observed consequence include contributions to higher infant mortality (Becker 1993), potential barriers to the development of the woman, increased maternal morbidity and mortality (Garenne 1997) and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (Gyepi-Gabrah 1987). It is contributing substantially to overall fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Taken as a region, the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa have the highest level of early child bearing in the world (Barker et al 1992). Teenage pregnancy constitutes a health hazard both to the mothers and the fetus.

The mother is at increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, anaemia, obstructed labour and its sequelae (Okpani et al 1995, Ojengbede et al 1987, Uwaezuoke et al 2004). They are also three times more likely to die as a result of the complications of pregnancy and delivery than those aged 20-24 (Aboyeji et al 2001, UNFPA 2000). The fetus is prone to be delivered preterm, small for gestational age and has an increased risk of peri-natal death (Ojengbede et al 1987, Uwaezuoke et al 2004, Aboyeji et al 2001). The main issues that have strongly influenced the pattern of adolescent pregnancy include the declining age at menarche and the increase in the number of years spent in school. This influences the timing of marriage. Adolescents who have finished at least 7 years of schooling (in developing countries) are more likely to delay marriage until after the age of 18 years (Salako et al 2006). This increases the length of time that they are exposed to the risk of adolescent pregnancy. The reason for teenage pregnancy varies from country to country and from region to region within the same country. Factors that are associated with teenage pregnancy include rapid urbanization, low socioeconomic status, low educational and career aspiration, residence in a single parent home and poor family relationship (Adegbenga et al 2003). In 1999, Nigeria’s adolescent fertility rate was 111 births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19, and Nigerian women averaged more than five births during their lifetime. The emotional trauma associated with an unwanted pregnancy in adolescents can be overwhelming. The society is absolutely judgmental when it comes to issues of adolescent pregnancy. This attitude has however not diminished in no way the incidence of unwanted pregnancies amongst Nigerian adolescents (Eugene 2000).

Abortion is the expulsion of the offspring in a state of development from the womb between one to seven months of pregnancy, which is giving birth before the right time. In most cases of abortion is referred to as miscarriage of birth. Abortion should be considered as a lifesaving situation due to illness. But however it is being practice at will due to societal changes and orientations. It is a situation where life is being tempered and it is becoming too dangerous and threatening to the life of the mother.

Abortion is also a form of removing pregnancy from the womb, either by taking pills (medical abortion) which involves taking medicines to cause miscarriage or by surgery (surgical abortion) where the pregnancy is removed from the womb. Most abortions can be provided on a daycare basis which means you do not need to stay at a clinic overnight. Every year almost 12,000 thousand teenage girls have abortion (Bpas 2009).

Abortion consists of two types which are the PILLS and SURGICAL abortion. The pills abortion is used after 9 to 24 weeks of pregnancy which involves taking of medicines to cause the womb to contract and push out the pregnancy. Also from 22 weeks after which the pregnancy is push out and an injection to the womb is given. Such injections are given to ensure the homeostatic balance of the uterus. However a checkup visit to the clinic is also required. Surgical abortion is the dilation and evacuation of the fetus which takes up to 15 to 24 weeks of the pregnancy. In surgical abortion the doctors are required to remove the pregnancy using narrow forceps passed through the neck of the womb. This form of abortion is carried out under general anesthetic conditions (asleep). In surgical abortions, one can visit the clinic and return home the same day of abortion (for pregnancy up to 20 weeks) (Bpass 2009).
Abortion is obviously increasing and identified as a social problem in so many ways, it destabilizes the teenager’s educational career as a useful member of the society. She is out rightly stigmatized by the society and in the long run turns the girl into a prostitute. Another major incidence of pregnancy and abortion is the socio-cultural background of people within Numan Local Government. This is attributed to the orientation or beliefs which subjected the girl-child to early hawking at a very tender age of about nine or ten years. These inappropriate exposures make her vulnerable as well asthe deceitfulness of irresponsible young boys and old men, usually compromise with her innocence.

It is a common fact that the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools is spreading in our communities and this need to be eradicated or reduced in the Local Government. In other words to solve this problem the parents and teachers should mould their children to be better adults. The government should introduce sex education in our secondary schools and tertiary institutions,’ and introduce relevant academic curriculum in order to reduce the cases of unwanted pregnancy.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education are being identified as a major problem that causes backwardness in a girl-child education. The study is aimed at finding out what brought about pregnancy and abortion and also the researcher will try to know whether harsh economic situation contributes to the pregnancy and abortion in Numan Local Government.

The project is also on the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education among female students in Numan local government area of Adamawa state, is an attempt to solve and provide answer to the following questions:

  1. That female students terminate their education/unduly because of the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools.
  2. That there is inadequate parental care which leads to the rampant cases of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose in embarking on this research work is to find out and look into an assessment on the prevalence of abortion among teenage girls that prevails in our secondary schools. The researcher will carry out this research work in order to make his contribution and recommendation to our secondary schools in Numan Local Government.

The researcher also chooses this project to determine the level of performance of our female students in our secondary schools in Numan Local Government) with a view and determination to prove to individual, the society and the nation concerned that, they are facing a serious problem that need every body’s efforts to bring about apparent difference and lasting solution.


1.4 Research Questions

To have a thorough understanding of an assessment on the prevalence of abortion among teenage girls in secondary schools in Numan Local Government Area and the strategies put in place. This project will attempt to answer to the following:

  1. Is improper training of female children cause pregnancy and abortion?
  2. Do you learn sex education in your schools or at home?
  3. Do you know any student that has experience pregnancy and abortion?
  4. What is responsible for pregnancy and abortion in your school?
  5. Who is to be blamed for pregnancy and abortion in your school?
  6. Will pregnancy affect your education?
  7. Is poor living condition of the family lead to pregnancy and abortion in your school?
  8. Is pregnancy and abortion a global issue nowadays?
  9. Is environmental influence causes pregnancy and abortion in your school?

1.5 Hypotheses

In this research project, the following hypotheses are subsequently stated to enable the researcher arrives at the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools in Numan Local Government Area.

  1. Socio-economic status of the girl-child and to meet up with the social changes in the society may significantly affect secondary schools girls.
  2. Impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl- child education in our secondary schools occurs due to parental failure to discharge their parental duties adequately.
  3. The administrators of the schools cannot cope with their responsibilities that brought about of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools.
  4. In many schools sex education is not taught at all.
  5. Societal influence has acted as one of the problem that brings about pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our society.
  6. The impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education is a general problem not only in our secondary schools, but a general problem in the society.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is assumed that what has been provided in our post primary schools must have to be tested to increase educational research, theories and practices. Sometimes partial solutions of it is assured that the researcher embark on finding more facts about the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools. The researcher will also make more efforts geared towards throwing more light on pregnancy and abortion which has become a national problem.

Many of the parents, schools administrators and the public at large have expressed doubts and dissatisfaction of the problem of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools and to look into the causes and prevention for its future occurrences.

Bearing in mind that secondary schools children could be in their early or late adolescent stage of development, teachers and parents should guide them properly especially on sex education. Part of the problem could be solved by emphasing on moral and religious education into our educational system.


1.7 Delimitation of the Study

The research will be based on particular reference to our secondary schools in Numan Local Government Area of Adamawa State. The researcher’s view is intended to look into the issue of sexual violence against teenagers to prove the evidence on the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools. The incidence will determine to show the consequences of sexual violence in our secondary schools.

Also more comprehensive work is expected on this project work due to the unwillingness, failure and uncooperative attitude of some of schools administrators in some schools visited, to produce substantial and effective records in order to understand the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools.

The researcher however restricted his studies to only five mix (female and male) secondary schools within Numan Local Government area and they include the following:

  1. Government Day Secondary School Villanova
  2. Government Day Secondary School tare
  3. Vocational Technical College Numan
  4. Bright future secondary school Numan
  5. Government day secondary school Imburu/Numan

Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

In this study, our focus was to carryout out on an assessment on the prevalence of abortion among teenage girls. The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining if Socio-economic status of the girl-child and to meet up with the social changes in the society may significantly affect secondary schools girls, impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl- child education in secondary schools occurs due to parental failure to discharge their parental duties adequately, if the administrators of schools cannot cope with their responsibilities that brought about of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools, if schools teach sex education to students, if societal influence has acted as one of the problem that brings about pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our society, if the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education is a general problem not only in secondary schools, but a general problem in the society.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 250 responses were validated from the enrolled participants of five (5) mixed secondary schools in Adamawa State.

The findings revealed that:

  1. Socio-economic status of the girl-child and to meet up with the social changes in the society may significantly affect secondary schools girls.
  2. Impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl- child education in our secondary schools do not occurs due to parental failure to discharge their parental duties adequately.
  3. The administrators of the schools inadequacy to cope with their responsibilities does not bring about pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in secondary schools.
  4. In many schools sex education is not taught at all.
  5. Societal influence has acted as one of the problem that brings about pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our society.
  6. The impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education is a general problem not only in our secondary schools, but a general problem in the society.

5.2 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Parents should be encouraged to live harmoniously by resolving their difference amicably through effective communication flow, because if pregnancy issue will be discussed or educated freely, there will not be unwanted pregnancy issue among teenagers.
  2. School as an agent of socialization should be involved to impact knowledge to teenage in their interpersonal relationship.
  3. Deliberate effort should be made towards counseling and reorientation of teenagers who are victims of unwanted pregnancy to properly readjust themselves.
  4. Teenage should be counseled on why they should not allow their friends feelings/emotions situation to affect their own attitude towards sexual intercourse.
  5. Programmes and training in relation to the principles that will make teenagers to live peacefully and harmoniously should be organized for counsel.
  6. Electronic and print media should provide educative programmes for both parents and teenagers on the sources, effect and consequence of illegal pregnancy and how to handle it.
  7. Sex education should be initiated as early as 10 years of age and that appropriate messages should be designed for specific age group to be included in the school curriculum.
  8. Poverty was one of the major reasons revealed by the study as a cause of teenage pregnancy. To address the issue, it is recommended that government should strengthen families to be able to provide the needs of their teenager to do so.
  9. Also, it is the government responsibilities to ensure that girls go to school and attend beyond primary level, prevents early pregnancies and create conducive environment in schools for those who get pregnant but still want to study as well as encourage the teenage parents to complete their studies.
  10. Finally, the following number of policies should be designed to protect teenagers from getting pregnant during adolescent state: National Health Policy, National Adolescent Health Policy, Sexual Reproductive Health Minimum Package, Minimum Age of Sexual Consent Policy, Defilement Law among others.

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