Prevalence Of Abortion Among Teenagers Girls In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State

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Prevalence Of Abortion Among Teenagers Girls In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State


Abstract


The primary objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of abortion among teenage girls in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. A descriptive survey research design and 100 respondents were used. A self-designed questionnaire was developed according to the objectives of the study to guide in the generation of information. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and the research question were analyzed using simple frequency and percentage. From the findings, the causes of abortion identified were shown to include economic reasons like poverty (72.4%), socio-cultural factors like stigma from community, religion etc. (84.2%), educational qualification (85.9%), healthcare services like poor quality and non-availability of health services (64.6%), and legal restriction (52.1%). Also, the effects of abortion to the reproductive health women were early complications including uterine perforation, infections and severe vaginal bleeding (68.6%), late complications including secondary infertility, chronic pelvic pains, chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases and maternal mortality (76.8%), maternal mortality (52.4%), ectopic pregnancy (44.3%), and chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (65%). Lastly, the findings revealed the strategies for prevention of abortion to include; health education and counseling on the role of contraceptives (60.2%), ensuring that family planning commodities are available, accessible and affordable at all levels of care (55.8%), legal action and implementation for enhancement of reproductive health services (77.5%), promotion of sex education and reproductive (65.1%), and follow-up and counsel on post abortion family planning needs (52%). The study recommended that health stakeholders and related authorities should encourage adequate training to strengthen the capacity of health professionals in abortion provision and management of post abortion complications. This should be accompanied with making contraception available, accessible and affordable in all healthcare facilities across the states from tertiary hospitals to the primary health care facilities.

 


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Causes of Abortion
  • 2.3 Effects of Abortion
  • 2.4 Strategies for Prevention of Abortion
  • 2.5 Theoretical Review
  • 2.6 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Research Setting
  • 3.3 Target Population
  • 3.4 Sample Size
  • 3.5 Sampling Technique
  • 3.6 Instruments for Data Collection
  • 3.7 Validity of Instrument
  • 3.8 Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.9 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.10 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Abortion is the commonest cause of bleeding in early pregnancy and is one of the major causes of maternal deaths worldwide. Worldwide an average of 35 in 1000 teenage girls (15-49years) has an abortion each year. However this rate ranges from 10 per 1000 women in some countries to around 80 per 1000 women in others. Despite variations in the legal status of abortions in developed and developing countries, overall rates are quite similar for both. Approximately 210 million pregnancies that occur each year, an estimated 38% are unplanned and a further 22% results in abortions, source of information.

In developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, 182 million pregnancies occur yearly with an estimated 36% unplanned and 20% ending in abortion. Abortion has become a significant medical and social problem; most of them are performed by untrained personnel leading to height mortality and morbidity rate. Abortion is defined as a procedure for the termination of an unwanted pregnancy either by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an environment lacking minimal medical standards or both (Adesokan 2010).

World Health Organization (2011) estimated that each year nearly 42million women faced with unintended pregnancies have abortions of which 20million are unsafe, mostly in countries where abortion is illegal. Approximately 68,000 women die annually as a result of complications of abortion and between two million and seven million women each year survive abortion but sustain long-term damage or disease like incomplete abortion, infection, sepsis, haemorrhage and injury to the internal organs such as puncturing or tearing of the uterus. The World Health Organization further states that abortion is safe in countries where it is legal but dangerous in countries where it is outlawed World Health Organization reports that in developed regions nearly all abortions 92% are safe, whereas in developing countries more than half 55% are unsafe. According to statistics the risk rate for abortion is 1/270 and is responsible for one in eight maternal deaths. Worldwide, 48% of all induced abortions are unsafe.

An article from the World Health Organization calls safe legal abortion a “Fundamental right of women, irrespective of where they live” and abortion a “silent pandemic”, the article further states that ending the silent pandemic of abortion is an urgent public health and human rights imperative. In some countries such as India where abortion has been legal for decades, access to competent care remains restricted because of other barrier making World Health Organization’s Global Strategy on Reproductive Health adopted by world health assembly in May 2004 to note that “As a preventable cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, abortion must be dealt with as a part of the maternal health and other international development goals and targets (WHO, 2011).

Abortion is illegal in Nigeria except to save a woman’s life. It is also common, and most procedures are performed under unsafe conditioned. In 1996, an estimated 610,000 abortions occurred in 25 percent of 1000 teenage girls of which 142000 resulted in complications severe enough to require hospitalization. The number of abortions is estimated to have risen to 760,000 in 2006.

Abortions are a major reason of maternal mortality rate of 1100 deaths percent in 100,000 live births in Nigeria making more than 3000 women to die annually in Nigerian of abortion. Jelinska and Yanow (2008) further stated that high rate of abortion is as a result of unintended pregnancy and that is certainly the case in Nigeria. Estimated 6.8million pregnancies that occur annually in Nigeria one in five is unplanned and half of these end in an induced abortion (Jelinska & Yanow, 2018). This research will highlight the latest scientific evidence on the causes and consequences of unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion. Due to increased rate of maternal mortality and morbidity rate among teenage girls (15-49years) in Ethiope East Local Government Area, therefore the researcher decided to carry out a study on effect of abortion.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The World Health Organization (WHO) defined abortion as a procedure for terminating a pregnancy per- formed by persons lacking the necessary skills or in an environment, not in conformity with minimal medical standards, or both (Ganatra, Tuncalp, Johnston, Johnson, Gulmezoglu, &Temmerman, 2014). About 97% of all global abortions between 2010 and 2014 occurred in low income countries (Ganatra, Gerdts, Rossier, Johnson Jr, Tunçalp, Assifi, &Bearak, 2017). The percent- age of abortions is higher in countries with highly restrictive abortion laws when compared with countries with more liberal laws. However, it must be noted that even in countries where abortion laws are liberal, some women still rely on abortions because of existing additional barriers such as onerous facility requirements, waiting periods, and parental consent laws (Jelinska, &Yanow, 2018). Though evidence available shows that self-management of abortions with the use of abortions pills (misoprostol alone or misoprostol in combination with mifepristone) can reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, inadequate information can lead to wrong dosages which will subsequently end in abortions (Ganatra et al., 2014). From the investigation made during communities and hospital based experiences, it was found out that teenage girls engage in abortionwhich leads to maternal mortality and morbidity. As a result the researcher decided to carry out the research study on prevalence of abortion among teenage girls in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of abortion among teenage girls in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.

The specific objectives are as follows;

  1. To determine the causes of abortion among teenage girls in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State
  2. To identify the effect of abortion on reproductive health of teenage girls in Ethiope East Local Government Area
  3. To identify the strategies to prevent abortion and its effect on the reproductive health of teenage girls in Ethiope East Local Government Area

1.4 Research Questions

The research questions are formulated based on the objectives and statement of problem to include;

  1. What is the causes of abortion among teenage girls in Ethiope East Local Government Area?
  2. What is the effect of abortion on reproductive health of teenage girls in Ethiope East Local Government Area?
  3. What are the strategies to prevent abortion and its effect on the reproductive health of teenage girls in Ethiope East Local Government Area?

1.5 Hypothesis

  • HO1: Teenage abortion is not prevalent in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State
  • HA1: Teenage abortion is prevalent in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings from this study are of significance to the teenage girls, the health sector and the society as a whole. Firstly, it will educate woman of childbearing age on effect of abortion and its effect on their reproductive health. Also, it will help to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, and encourage the women to use family planning facilities. Furthermore, it will help women to enjoy good health thereby maintaining good physical, mental, social and psychological well-being; as well as reduce the incidence of abortion and serve as a source for further studies. It is expected that the findings from this study will help stakeholders and health authorities to formulate policies and strategies in measures to improve safe abortion and promote healthy lifestyle and risk free behaviours among women of reproductive age. Also, findings from the study will help policy makers in coming up with appropriate programmes and control measures that boost the health promotion among women. Finally, information gathered from this study will serve as a source of literature and guide for future research and as well serve as empirical reference for further studies.


1.7 Scope of Study

The focus of this study is on the prevalence of abortion among teenage girls in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. Ethiope LGA was used as the study area, and teenage girls between 12 and 18 years as the respondents for data collection and analysis. Variables considered include causes of abortion among teenage girls, effect of abortion on reproductive health of teenage girls, and strategies to prevent abortion and its effect on the reproductive health of teenage girls in Ethiope East Local Government Area.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The researcher encountered some limitations among the teenage girls. Some of the respondents were reluctant to fill the questionnaire because they claim they did not have time for it. The researcher also incurred huge financial expenses in carrying out this research through the process of questionnaire distribution. Lastly, the study was limited in scope in the terms of the location of the study. This study was limited to women of reproductive age in Ethiope East Local Government Area, Delta state.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Abortion:

Refers to the expulsion or removal of an embryo before the stage of viability usually 28th weeks of gestation.

Morbidity Rate:

Refers to a figure that shows the susceptibility of a population to certain disease.

Mortality Rate:

Refers to the number of death per 1000 or other unit of population occurring from a disease condition.

Prevalence:

In epidemiology, prevalence is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition at a specific time. In this study, it refers to the population of teenage girls that are involved or have been involved in abortion.

Teenage Girls:

Refers to adolescent girls between the ages of 12 and 18 for the purpose of this study.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction which contains the background, research problems and objectives. The second chapter is the literature review and the third chapter is the methodology. In the fourth chapter, the researcher analyses the data and discusses the results. The fifth chapter is the last chapter which presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The primary objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of abortion among teenage girls in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. A descriptive survey research design and 100 respondents were used. A self-designed questionnaire was developed according to the objectives of the study to guide in the generation of information. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents and the research question were analyzed using simple frequency and percentage. From the findings, the causes of abortion identified were shown to include economic reasons like poverty (72.4%), socio-cultural factors like stigma from community, religion etc. (84.2%), educational qualification (85.9%), healthcare services like poor quality and non-availability of health services (64.6%), and legal restriction (52.1%). Also, the effects of abortion to the reproductive health women were early complications including uterine perforation, infections and severe vaginal bleeding (68.6%), late complications including secondary infertility, chronic pelvic pains, chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases and maternal mortality (76.8%), maternal mortality (52.4%), ectopic pregnancy (44.3%), and chronic pelvic inflammatory disease (65%). Lastly, the findings revealed the strategies for prevention of abortion to include; health education and counseling on the role of contraceptives (60.2%), ensuring that family planning commodities are available, accessible and affordable at all levels of care (55.8%), legal action and implementation for enhancement of reproductive health services (77.5%), promotion of sex education and reproductive (65.1%), and follow-up and counsel on post abortion family planning needs (52%).


5.2 Conclusion

Abortion is a serious public health crisis in Nigeria that requires collective efforts of all the relevant stakeholders (government, healthcare professionals, non-governmental organizations, the media, religious organizations and other professionals). The mortalities and health impacts from abortion is highly devastating to the women, their families and to the society. As such, abortion has to be treated by government of Nigeria as a national priority if we are to meet the target of reducing maternal mortality. Confronting this silent killer will not only reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, but will improve the socio- economic wellbeing of the families and the nation in general. Below are the recommendations that should be made available to Nigerian government and all the other stakeholders responsible for promoting maternal health in the country.


5.3 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made based on the findings of the study;

  1. The government and other policy makers should expand legal indications for abortion in the country, which will be more acceptable to the large segment of the society and could improve and enlarge safe abortion services in the public health facilities.
  2. Health stakeholders and related authorities should encourage adequate training to strengthen the capacity of health professionals in abortion provision and management of post abortion complications. This should be accompanied with making contraception available, accessible and affordable in all healthcare facilities across the states from tertiary hospitals to the primary health care facilities.
  3. Advocacy campaigns should be intensified to sensitize the general public about the magnitude and high rate of maternal death from abortion in the country.

Prevalence Of Abortion Among Teenagers Girls In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State


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Prevalence Of Abortion Among Teenagers Girls In Ethiope East Local Government Area Of Delta State


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