Incidence And Prevalence Of Criminal Abortion Among Women Of Child Bearing Age

Project and Seminar Material for Criminology And Security Studies

Incidence And Prevalence Of Criminal Abortion Among Women Of Child Bearing Age


Abstract


This study was carried out on the incidence and prevalence of criminal abortion among women of child bearing age in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of women of child bearing age in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 264 respondents and 209 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that the factors which causes and contribute to women engagement in abortion include; lack of funds, unwanted pregnancy, health complications, use of illicit drugs, and fear of social reprisal from an out-of-wedlock pregnancy. The study also revealed that abortion causes reproductive health complication. Furthermore, the the possible effects of abortion among women comprise of infections and fatality, infertility, reproductive deformation, maternal morbidity, and damage to the womb. Therefore, it is recommended that reproductive health education schemes need to focus more on undergraduate females. And parents and guardians should take actions and decisions that will better educate their youths on abortion and its accompanying dangers.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Abortion refers to utilizing medical, non-medical, or surgical procedures to end a pregnancy so that it doesn’t result in the birth of a child. Termination of pregnancy can be used interchangeably to mean abortion (Mohamed et al., 2018). The terms miscarriage and abortion are also used interchangeably to mean the loss of a pregnancy before viability. Early pregnancy loss is sometimes called spontaneous abortion. Spontaneous abortion is called ‘miscarriage’ to differentiate it from induced abortions (Ndungu, 2015). Pregnancy viability in Sub- Saharan countries is 24 weeks, while the average worldwide viable gestation is 20 weeks (Patel et al., 2017). According to the World Health Organization (2008), abortion is safe when conducted in a manner that is recommended by WHO, appropriate to the pregnancy duration, and by an individual who possesses the relevant skills. Unsafe abortion refers to the termination of unintended pregnancy by an individual who lacks the necessary skills and in an environment that does not conform to minimal medical standards (World Health Organization, 2008)

Abortion can be traced back to the Socrates, Hippocrates, Plato, and Aristotle period. A variety of medical and surgical methods of abortion have been used. Marlow et al. (2014) concluded that most adolescents seeking abortion services in Nigeria still do not understand the conditions under which abortion is legal under the 2010 constitution. While many adolescents seek induced abortions due to unintended pregnancies, the unmet need for contraceptive services is high in Nigeria. Both the patient who is seeking abortion services and the healthcare provider face stigma ranging from cultural, religious, and social norms.

In Nigeria, the subject of abortion draws significant objections, underpinned by medical, socio-cultural, ethical, moral, and religious beliefs. Currently, the subject of abortion remains highly disapproved. Abortion continues to be an essential factor affecting adolescents’s reproductive lives and survival in the developing world. In Nigeria, over 90% of all abortions are unsafe. Unsafe abortion has essential consequences for morbidity and mortality, accounting for an estimated 25% of maternal deaths in developing countries and 5 million adolescents being treated for complications of induced abortion each year worldwide. According to the findings in a thesis by Dr. Lugaliki Doreen, presented to the University of Nairobi, over 13 % of pregnancy-related deaths are attributed to complications of unsafe abortions (Ziraba et al., 2015). Abortion, either medical or non-medical, has distinctive physical, social, economic, and emotional-psychological side effects.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Criminal abortion causes various health-related and psychological effects. Unsafe abortion leads to high maternal mortality due to post-abortion infection and excessive bleeding. Most adolescents seek abortion services in unauthorized areas that lack the required medical facilities and personnel due to the country’s laws, high cost of care in hospitals, and lack of understanding of the dangers of unsafe abortion. Lack of education, the stigma of terminating a pregnancy from the community, and possible criminal charges make young adolescents in Nigeria seek illegal and unauthorized abortion services. Additionally, due to a lack of knowledge on the subject, they do not get post-abortion care leading to physical and psychological harm.

The stigma associated with abortion is a barrier to timely medical care. 7-48 hours delay in seeking care is related to severe complications, including death due to septic or hemorrhagic shock (Kiraba et al., 2015). Additionally, most people seeking termination of pregnancy have unmet needs for contraception. Unmet family planning needs are highest among adolescents at 30% compared to 22% in young adults, leading to 43% of unplanned pregnancies (Machiyama et al., 2017). The high percentage of unmet contraceptive needs is associated with a lack of knowledge, anti-contraceptive perceptions due to uncertainty about future fertility, fear of side effects, and infrequent sex practice. People with unmet contraceptive needs are at a high risk of having unplanned pregnancies, thus having unsafe pregnancy termination and complications..


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the incidence and prevalence of criminal abortion among women of child bearing age. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. To ascertain the incidence of criminal abortion among women of child bearing age
  2. To determine the prevalence of criminal abortion among women of childbearing age
  3. To identify the factors contributing to the higher incidence and prevalence of criminal abortion among women of childbearing age
  4. To highlight the dangers and health risk of criminal abortion to women of childbearing age
  5. To highlight measures to tackle criminal abortion among women of child bearing age

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the rate of incidence of criminal abortion among women of child bearing age?
  2. What is level the prevalence of criminal abortion among women of childbearing age?
  3. What are the factors contributing to the higher incidence and prevalence of criminal abortion among women of childbearing age ?
  4. What are the dangers and health risk of criminal abortion to women of childbearing age?
  5. What are the measures to tackle criminal abortion among women of child bearing age?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

  • Null Hypothesis: There’s no relationship between medical, sociocultural, ethical, moral, and religious perceptions and criminal Abortion among women of child bearing age.
  • Alternative Hypothesis: There’s a significant relationship between medical, sociocultural, ethical, moral, and religious perceptions and criminal abortion among women of child bearing age.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will also be beneficial to the society as the results of this study will reveal the dangers of abortion, and the effect of abortion on the sexual practices among reproductive aged women(15-49) thereby encouraging parents and guardians to take actions and decisions that will better educate their youths on abortion and its accompanying dangers.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the causes and effect of abortion among women of reproductive age.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the incidence and prevalence of criminal abortion among women of child bearing age. However, the study will further identify the factors which causes and contribute to women engagement in abortion, ascertain whether abortion causes reproductive health complication, and determine possible effects of abortion among women. The respondents for this study will be obtained among women of child bearing age in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Mortality:

Loss of life on a large scale.

Abortion:

Termination of the pregnancy of a woman before it reaches full term.

Sexual Activities:

Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. People engage in a variety of sexual acts, ranging from activities done alone to acts with another person in varying patterns of frequency, for a wide variety of reasons.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on the incidence and prevalence of criminal abortion among women of child bearing age in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain the incidence of criminal abortion among women of child bearing age, determine the prevalence of criminal abortion among women of childbearing age, identify the factors contributing to the higher incidence and prevalence of criminal abortion among women of childbearing age, highlight the dangers and health risk of criminal abortion to women of childbearing age and to highlight measures to tackle criminal abortion among women of child bearing age.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 209 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were women of child bearing age Uyo, Akwa Ibom State.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The factors which causes and contribute to women engagement in abortion include; lack of funds, unwanted pregnancy, health complications, use of illicit drugs, and fear of social reprisal from an out-of-wedlock pregnancy.
  2. Abortion causes reproductive health complication.
  3. The possible effects of abortion among women comprise of infections and fatality, infertility, reproductive deformation, maternal morbidity, and damage to the womb.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. The task for policymakers, nongovernmental organizations, community and opinion leaders, health professional bodies, and family planning service providers is to develop more effective strategies to curb this problem of induced abortion.
  2. Reproductive health education schemes need to focus more on undergraduate females.
  3. Parents and guardians should take actions and decisions that will better educate their youths on abortion and its accompanying dangers.

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