Analysis Of Cholesterol Level Of Three Species Of Pig

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology (SLT)

Analysis Of Cholesterol Level Of Three Species Of Pig


Analysis of ground water was carried out with a view to ascertaining quality of water and suitability for domestic purpose using owerri as a case study; boreholes are water resources of the study area. Three samples from different boreholes at four different locations were collected. Contents of fluoride, sulphate, nitrate and temperature were studied and compared with the standard values prescribed by world health organization (WHO).

The results show that fluoride had a range of (0.00mg/-0.56mg/l), nitrate (4.1mg/l – 44mg/l), sulphate (3.9mg/l – 14.0mg/l) and temperature (25. 97mg/l – 28.81mg/l). All the parameters checked are within the maximum standard limits stipulated by world Health organization (WHO) .The statistical analysis used to correlate the result shows that temperature correlated positively and significantly with nitrate (r = + 0.00594) , temperature correlated negatively and (significantly with fluoride (r = -0.171) and negatively and significantly with sulphate (r = -0.261).

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of content
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Overview of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Scope of the study
  • 1.4 Significance of the study
  • 1.5 Aims/Objectives

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Facts about water
  • 2.2 Water purification
  • 2.3 Importance of water
  • 2.4 Overview of fluoride
  • 2.5 Sulphate in drinking water
  • 2.6 Nitrates in water
  • 2.7 Chemistry of water
  • 2.8 Water quality standard and assessment criteria
  • 2.9 Temperature

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Methods

  • 3.1 Apparatus
  • 3.2 Reagents
  • 3.3 Sample Collection
  • 3.4 Laboratory Analysis
  • 3.4.1 Determination of Fluoride
  • 3.4.2 Determination of Sulphate
  • 3.4.3 Determination of Nitrate

Chapter Four

4.0 Result and Discussion

  • 4.1 Statistical analysis of various parameters in ground water

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • Appendix
  • References

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Overview Of The Study

Ground water is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formation.

This is the water that percolated downward from the surface through the soil pore.

Ground water is naturally replenished by surface water from precipitation, streams and rivers, ground water is not as susceptible to pollution as surface water but once polluted, restoration is difficult and long term [1]. Ground water contamination occurs when man made products such as gasoline, oil, road salts and chemicals get into the groundwater and cause it to become unsafe and unfit for human use.

Generally, rural dwellers rely on groundwater as drinking water and for other domestic chores since it does not generally require treatment. The problems of water in the Niger delta are not that of availability but of portability [2]. The water quality of borehole is generally neglected based on the general belief that it is pure through the natural purification process.

There is inadequate information or knowledge of the quantity, quality and pattern of distribution of Nigerians water resources [3]. Due to the absence of municipal water supply, many of the inhabitants of owerri, in imo state of Nigeria depend on boreholes for their need.

Unsatisfactory water supplies and unwholesome sanitation condition can result in poor human health. This portends the fact that there are very strong links between water and health. Water is a natural resource whose scarcity or poor quality can cause a chain of unpleasant situations to mankind, especially in developing countries like Nigeria.

There are many ways in which poor water quality and sanitary conditions can give rise to poor health. For instance, classical water borne disease which include cholera and other diarrhoeal disease, as well as what related parasitic disease like schistosomiasis , guinea worm, river blindness, hepatitis and malaria are very common

Nitrate compounds , heavy metals pesticides, etc, that are contained in our drinking water can also constitute undesirable pollutants when they are not within world health organization guide line for drinking water.

From an environmental health stand point there is a need to ascertain the level of water quality of a locality to avoid or reduce some of these health hazards. Based on this, the present study is undertaken in Owerri Zone of Imo State Nigeria to assess some aspects of the groundwater quality of the area. The study is significant and relevant because portable water is essential to life.

The parameters considered are fluoride, nitrate and sulphate respectively. In the past one and half decades, communities in Owerri have depended on surface water supplies, mainly rivers/streams, ponds, and rainfall.

The vulnerability of these water sources to contamination is very high. The need and demand for better water quality prompted the sinking of boreholes in the study area to the extent that the next problem becomes whether or not the ground water is good for human consumption [5].

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Individuals are susceptible to dental fluorosis, diarrhea and methemoglobinemia due to high fluoride, sulphate and nitrate levels in drinking water. Therefore, determination of the most appropriate levels of the above mentioned minerals in drinking water is crucial in Owerri metropolitan city in view of the proliferation of borehole water in the area.

1.3 Scope Of The Study

This research is being carried out to determine the fluoride, sulphate and nitrate levels in borehole waters. The research will focus on the analysis of fluoride, sulphate and nitrate contents of water from the four spotted locations. The values obtained from the analysis will be compared with the standard for adoption and recommendation.

1.4 Significance Of The Study

This research if properly carried;

  1. Would promote a better understanding of fluoride problem and its impact on children.
  2. Would raise the awareness of relevant governments and public on the fluoride, sulphate and nitrate issues and the importance of monitoring water quality.
  3. Would demonstrate through pilot project, the efficacy of low cost fluoride, sulphate and nitrate removal technology.

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

The experimental investigation of the extent of the ground water quality of owerri in Imo state, Nigeria has shown that groundwater in the vicinity is safe for drinking and other uses. Thus, the study has helped to allay people’s fears that the water here is substandard for drinking and domestic purposes. Groundwater is important natural resources which is next alternative to the surface supply sources that are prone to easy contaminant.

The correlation done was to ascertain the effect or relationship of one parameter to another.

Therefore, it is recommended that borehole from Ihiagwa, Nekede, Rotube and Amakohia are portable and good for consumption. But, we advice that the inhabitants of these four communities should be conscious of the container used in water collection, provided that the containers are free from contaminants. The purity of the borehole water from these four communities is guaranteed.

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