Comparative Estimation Of Ascorbic Acid Content In Citrus Sinensis (Orange) Ananas Cosmosus (Pineapple)

Project and Seminar Material for Science Laboratory Technology SLT

Comparative Estimation Of Ascorbic Acid Content In Citrus Sinensis (Orange) Ananas Cosmosus (Pineapple)


A comparative analysis of the ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) content of some Nigeria fruits were carried out. The fruits analyzed were (Orange) Citrus Sinensis and (pineapple) Ananas cosmosus, the fruits were bought at Abakpa market Enugu. Enugu state. The fruits were blended and the filtrates were used for the analysis. The ascorbic acid content of the fruits were analyzed titrimetrically. The result showed that (orange) Citrus sinensis contained 0.044mg/ml and (pineapple) Ananas Cosmosus contained 0.032mg/ml of Ascorbic acid content. This (orange) Citrus sinensis has a higher ascorbic acid content than the (pineapple) Ananas consmosus.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Vitamins are organic substances found in most natural foods in rather small amounts and required by the organism in also small amount for the conduct of several chemical and biochemical processes on which the attainment of good nutritional health depends. It can also be defined as organic compounds which occurs in natural foods stuffs, either as such or as utilizable precursors, and which are necessary usually in minutes amounts for normal growth maintenance, reproduction and health in animals (Seck and Crouzet 1981).

They differ from other organic compounds of the diet in that they do not enter into the structure of tissues (at least in the normal sense , although certain of them may function by stabilizing the integrity of cell membranes) nor do they undergo metabolism to provide energy. The discovering of vitamins the so-called accessory food factors is one of the great achievement of the 20th century. This great contribution to the science of animal and human nutrition was, in the main conceived in terms of modern chemistry and production virtually with the spam of one generation. Although nutritional deficiency diseases such as scurvy and rickets has been down for centuries, their causes were either unknown or wrapped in mystery and also their treatment remains empirical (Widengren et al 2007).

However, even in the 18th and 19th centuries, it was recognized that some diseases were related to diet.

Dumes J. B. A (1800 to 1994) seems to have been the first practical scientist to question the adequacy of human diet based solely on protein, fats, carbohydrates and minerals. By 1900 several scientists all over the world carried out experiments that led to the conclusion that purified diets were unable to support life and production in animals as diverse as rats, chicks, and for vital processes (Davies, et al 1991).

In 1902, the theory that beriberi, scurvy, pellagra and perhaps rickets were nutritional diseases caused by lack of special substances which are of the nature of organic bases which were called vitamins.

The concept took some years to establish but opened the way for modern nutritional research. By the end of the next four decades nearly all the presently known vitamins were discovered, isolated, identified and synthesized.

1.1 Objective of the Study

This project work is aimed at estimating the ascorbic acid contents of various Nigeria fruits viz Citrus sinensis and Ananas consumes and also to compare the ascorbic acid level of the Nigeria fruits analyzed.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Ascorbic acid is a water soluble vitamin required in the body for the up keep of all enzymatic actions, healing of wound, regeneration of body cells.

The deficiency of (vitamin C) Ascorbic acid in the body leads to a diseases condition know as scurvy. When not properly treated it predispose the affected individual to tooth decay and fallen of teeth, brittle bones and inability of wounds to heal. Fruits are the main source of (vitamin C) Ascorbic acid some fruits contain more Ascorbic and than others.

1.3 Justification

Ascorbic acid deficiency leads to scurvy. Fruits are the main source of ascorbic acid especially citus fruits . while some fruits contain more ascorbic acid than others, there is need o evaluate ascorbic acid than citrus fruits, this helps to increase the sources of ascorbic acid as well as reduces scurvy in individuals.

1.4 Hypothesis

(Orange) Citrus sinensis and (pineapple) Ananas cosmosus contains ascorbic acid.

1.5 Limitation of the Study

The management failure of scurvy may be due to the role of ascorbic acid in collagen formation; the polyneuritis of beriberi cannot be explained in terms of diminished pyruvate dehydrogenase activity. Thus the three Dā€™S of pellagra (Diarrhea, determatitis and demention) cannot in terms of the function of the pyridine nucleotides (Lachapelle and Drouin, 2010).

The need manifestation of many deficiencies presumably reflects failure of certain metabolic activities in which the essential nutrients are involved, but the basis for the relationship is known.

Chapter Five

Discussion / Conclusion

Comparative analyses of Ascorbic acid content of some Nigerian fruits viz: (orange) Citrus Sinensis and (pineapple) Ananas Cosmosus was carried out. The results obtained showed the (orange) Citrus Sinensis contain 7.5 x 10-2g/ml level of Ascorbic acid, and (pineapple) Ananas Cosmosus contain 1.87 x 104g/ml. This result agreed with the works of okaka J.C et al, 1992 where Ascorbic used was obtained and estimated in some citrus fruits. In summary, it can be conducted that (orange) Citrus Sinensis and (Pineapple) Ananas Cosmosus contains various level of Ascorbic acid also (orange) Citrus Sinensis has the highest level of Ascorbic acid of 7.5 x 102 followed by (pineapple) Ananas Cosmosus.


Ascorbic acid should be taken by individuals especially the elderly, the sick and infants.

Citrus fruits are sources of Ascorbic acid and should be encourage and produced commercially to the reach of the average Nigeria. Other sources of Ascorbic acid other them citrus should be encouraged and produced commercially more research should be down on other fruits other than citrus for alternative sources of Ascorbic acid.

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