Emerging Technologies In Cyber-Physical Networks

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering

Project and Seminar Material for Computer Science and Computer Engineering


Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) will revolutionize how humans relate with the physical world around us. Many grand challenges await the economically vital domains of transportation, health-care, manufacturing, agriculture, energy, defence, aerospace and buildings. Exploration of these potentialities around space and time would create applications which would affect societal and economic benefit.

This paper looks into the concept of emerging Cyber-Physical system, applications and security issues in sustaining development in various economic sectors; outlining a set of strategic Research and Development opportunities that should be accosted, so as to allow upgraded CPS to attain their potential and provide a wide range of societal advantages in the future.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Aim and Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Scope of the study
  • 1.5 Purpose of the study
  • 1.6 Definition of terms

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Historical development of cyber-physical networks

Chapter Three:

Overview Of Cyber-Security

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 CPS Security objective

Chapter Four:

Trends And Challenges Of Emerging Technologies In Cyber-Physical Networks

  • 4.1 Security Control and Attacks in CPS
  • 4.1.1 Attacks in CPS:
  • 4.2.2 Security Control
  • 4.2 Cyber-Physical System in Different Sectors

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the study

A cyber-physical (CPS) is a system in which a mechanism is controlled or monitored by computer-based algorithms. In cyber-physical systems, physical and software components are deeply intertwined, able to operate on different spatial and temporal scales, exhibit multiple and distinct behavioral modalities, and interact with each other in ways that change with context.

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are physical and engineering systems whose operations are monitored, coordinated, controlled and integrated by a computing and communication core. The Nanoworld to large-scale wide-area systems of systems would display the close arrangement between the cyber and physical (Ragunathan, Insup, Lui, & John, 2010). The web changed how people connect and speak with each other, upset how and where data is gotten, and even changed how individuals purchase and offer items. Likewise, CPS will change how people communicate with and control the physical world around us.

Use cases of CPS incorporate medical devices and systems, aviation systems, transportation vehicles and smart expressways, mechanical frameworks, process control, industrial facility automation, building and natural control and smart spaces. CPS cooperate with the physical world, and must work reliably, securely, safely, and effectively and progressively.

Cyber-Physical System Overview Source

Figure 1: Cyber-Physical System Overview Source: (Erik, 2018)

The growth of low- cost and high capability sensors which possess tiny look, the increasing accessibility of higher powered, high- capability, tiny computing devices; all these factors have contributed to the guarantee of CPS. The requirement for CPS innovations is additionally being handled by CPS sellers in areas like aviation, engineering and environmental control, smart grid, process control, manufacturing plant automation, and medical services, who are progressively finding that the innovation base to fabricate huge scale safety-critical CPS effectively, moderately, adaptably and on plan is genuinely deficient. CPS unite the distinct and potent logic of computing to admonish and operate the persistent elements of physical and engineering systems (Ragunathan, Insup, Lui, & John, 2010).
The future utilizations of CPS are more transformative than the Information Technology of the previous three decades. Unparalleled expository capacities, real-time networked information, and pervasive sensing, actuating, and computation are making intense open doors for systems integration. Cutting edge CPS will have the capacity to execute phenomenal errands that are scarcely envisioned today. These new abilities will require high-certainty processing frameworks that can associate fittingly with people and the physical world in unique situations and under unexpected conditions. The advancement and improvement of CPS would need computer scientists, researchers and system experts to experiment with specialists in different engineering fields such as control engineering, signal processing, civil engineering, mechanical engineering and biology. Thus, this will upset how institutions educate scientists and engineers. The size, organization and capabilities of industry groups that design, develop and deploy CPS will likewise change significantly. The worldwide intensity of national economies that progress toward becoming innovation pioneers in CPS will make strides (PCAST P. C., 2007).

The exactness of computing must interface with the vulnerability and the commotion in the physical environment. The absence of ideal synchrony crosswise over time and space must be managed. The disappointments of parts in both the digital and physical areas must be endured or tolerated. Security and privacy prerequisites must be implemented. System elements over numerous time-scales must be tended to. Scale and expanding many-sided quality must be subdued. These requirements require the production of innovative scientific foundations and engineering principles. Experimenting ways to deal with assembling computing-centric engineered systems must be supplanted by thorough strategies, confirmed frameworks, and capable devices. Investigations and science must supplant wasteful and testing-concentrated strategies. Startling mischances and disappointments must blur, and strong system configuration must turn into a set up area. New sensors and sensor combination innovations must be created. Smaller and all the more intense actuators must wind up plainly accessible (Ragunathan, Insup, Lui, & John, 2010).

Evolution to Cyber-Physical Systems

Figure 2: Evolution to Cyber-Physical Systems (Industry 4.0) Source: (Jay, 2018)

1.2 Statement of the problem

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) has seen an expanding implementation in our society facilitating various services from smart grids to smart vehicle network. While traditional criteria in industrial networks and controlling systems are still valid for the emerging CPS, new challenges need to be addressed for the development of future CPS including security, correctness, and resource constraints. Therefore the need to carry out an overview of emerging technologies in cyber-physical networks.

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the study


The main aim of the study is to examine emerging technologies in cyber-physical networks.

  1. To examine the trends and challenges of technologies in cyber-physical networks.
  2. To examine the historical development of cyber-physical networks.
  3. To examine the security controls in cyber-physical networks.
  4. To examine the use of cyber-physical system (CPS) in different sectors.

1.4 Scope of the study

This study focusses on emerging technologies in cyber-physical networks.

1.5 Purpose of the study

The study will enhance the use of cyber-physical networks. This will improve the security of organizations, as it can be employed in different sectors.

This study will also be of benefit to the educational sector because it will help students, researchers and academics in carrying out research related to this study.

1.6 Definition of terms


Control is a function of management which helps to check errors in order to take corrective actions. This is done to minimize deviation from standards.

Cyber Security:

Cyber security refers to the body of technologies, processes, and practices designed to protect networks, devices, programs, and data from attack, damage, or unauthorized access. Cyber security may also be referred to as information technology security.


A cyber-physical system (CPS) is a system in which a mechanism is controlled or monitored by computer-based algorithms. Cyber-Physical Systems are integrations of computation, networking, and physical processes. Embedded computers and networks monitor and control the physical processes, with feedback loops where physical processes affect computations and vice versa.

Emerging Technologies:

Emerging technologies are technologies whose development, practical applications, or both are still largely unrealized, such that they are figuratively emerging into prominence from a background of nonexistence or obscurity.

Security Controls:

Security controls are safeguards or countermeasures to avoid, detect, counteract, or minimize security risks to physical property, information, computer systems, or other assets. They can be classified by several criteria.


Security is freedom from, or resilience against, potential harm caused by others. Beneficiaries of security may be of persons and social groups, objects and institutions, ecosystems or any other entity or phenomenon vulnerable to unwanted change.


Technology is the sum of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Summary

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are physical and engineering systems whose operations are monitored, coordinated, controlled and integrated by a computer and a communications core. Large-scale nanoworld systems and large-scale systems would show the close understanding between cybernetics and the physical. The web has changed the way people connect and talk, disrupts how and where data is obtained, and has even changed the way people buy and sell items. Likewise, CPS will change the way people communicate and control the physical world around us.
CPS is as of now encouraging a wide move from clinic based to home-based health care. By broadening the span of quality care past conventional doctor’s facilities, CPS-based medical devices and system are empowering more personalized health care services and amended patient results. As progress made are influenced, CPS can prompt new capacities to diagnose, treat, and forestall infection. CPS counts on detecting, preparing, and organizing. CPSs are additionally of real relevance in mechanical generation, keeping in mind the end goal to have the capacity to execute customer necessities.

5.2 Conclusion

Great development has been made in the enhancement of CPS, anyway numerous challenges flourish. Beating these challenges makes stimulating developmental opportunities to ensure that diverse money related divisions in the field of CPS, will have a globally forceful edge. The ability of CPS to change each piece of life is gigantic. Thoughts in various parts have been produced, setting it in the cutting edge of mechanical progression. These frameworks all rely upon a computational center that is solidly interconnected with parts in the physical world; putting out each day practices both at home and work promptly accessible.

The essential particular challenges in like manner have a great deal of shared attribute reflecting an extent of central logical, designing, institutional, and societal issues. Hindrances rise all through all periods of development headway, from principal science through connected Research and Development, show, assembling, and organization. Keeping an eye on the most belittling of these will help ensure that, the future CPS are solid, protected, producible, and secure.

5.3 Recommendation

This study strongly recommend that new curricula addressing relevant fields of knowledge should be established at different levels of education. Also, we need to understand and teach how to incorporate adaptivity and context awareness in CPS.

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