The Effects Of Packaging On Sales Of Consumer Product

Project and Seminar Material for Marketing

The Effects Of Packaging On Sales Of Consumer Product


This project work focuses on effect of packaging on sales of consumer product with survey of Guinness Nigeria Plc, Benin City. It is aimed at assessing the impact of packaging involved branding a product cover either for enhancing appearance or for preservative purpose. The researches of this work include determine the role of packaging on the firm‘s market value and how packaging affects the marketing power of a product. Data were collected through the use of questionnaire and oral interview alongside. The data collected were carefully analyzed using statistical method such as chi-square and simple percentage method based on the analysis of data, the following findings were made, packing of consumer products affect their identification, packaging of consumer product serve both promotional and preservation of consumer purpose and finally it has been observed that packaging enhance the marketing force of consumer product. It then concluded that packaging has been a strategic tool employed for easy marketability of consumer products.

The following were there after recommended to the producer of consumer products: adequate attention should be given to packaging of product since packaging of product is positively related to sales, company policy should expressly spec z)5’ the goal of packaging so that it would be well understood by the various level of her workforce and finally, companies should ensure that the quality of their product commensurate with the description on the product packaging so as to sustain the confidence of her product consumers on their product.

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

Packaging has a great influence or impact in the lives of human and product alike. Most physical products have to be packaged and labeled. Some packages such as the coke bottle and eggs container are world famous. Many marketers have called packaging a fifth “P” along with product, place, price and promotion. Most manufacturing industries today employ high technological equipment and techniques in the design and production of product is not deemed complete until a befitting package has design and produced for it. The package here is looked upon the marketing along the channel of production of consumer goods/products.

Packaging has become a potent marketing tool well designed and can create convenience and promotional value. It is imperative that any type of packaging should protect the product from damage, pilferage and deterioration through sales channel to its ultimate consumer and in the process of its usage. It is paramount that most consumer products be packaged in some kind of container, if they are to be marketed intensively with its inherent handling procedure and technique along het sales channel. The research study will be justified by seeking to find whether consumer have been recommended for improvement.

Furthermore, a product is basically made up of two distinct parts, the product content and the package itself. But at this junction, more time need to be focused to the important part which is packaging is presently playing the sales of consumer products. It is important to adequately package a product to protect it against all external forces that may be acting on the product while in transit for the fact that a product needs to be adequately packaged, an organization needs not to over package their product. The packaging of a product does not perform protective function but it also provides promotional function.

The influence of packaging on the sales of consumer product has recently increased tremendously. At times, it becomes very difficult to determine whether greater emphasis should be on the protective function of packaging than on its promotional function. Formally, most firms saw packaging as only a container for physical product without realizing the other marketing importance of product packaging especially its importance as a promotional function.

Due to increase importance, which is presently attached to packaging, this particular function in marketing has stopped to be regarded as any person’s job. The job of product packaging now rest on the hands of qualified product managers or marketing specialist in most organization. Besides, the influence of packaging on sales of consumer product can as well as ascertained if on tries to see the adverse effect of a poor packaging on a product. It will not only kill the product image in the long run but it may also create stigma on the product and also create dissatisfaction along the channel of intermediaries

1.2 Statement Of Research Problem

The purpose of this research study is to assess the effect of packaging on the sales of consumer products. In order to achieve this purpose and make its findings such more significant in practical application, Guinness Nigeria Plc, Benin City has been chosen as a study unit.

To this end, the following questions are relevant.

  1. Does packaging have significant effect on the consumer’s desire to purchase a particular product?
  2. Does it require high level of expertise to make an effective product packaging of consumer product?
  3. What effect has packaging on the value of consumer product?

1.3 Objective of the Study

The following objectives are set to be achieved with this research work.

  1. To determine whether packaging has any influence on the sales of consumer goods.
  2. To know if packaging determine the price of a product
  3. To determine of packaging has any role to play in promotion and protection of a product.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis One
  • HO: Packaging does not have any significant influence on the sales of consumer product.
  • Hi: Packaging has significant influence on the sales of consumer product
Hypothesis Two
  • HO: Packaging does not affect the price of consumer products.
  • Hi: Packaging affects the price of consumer products.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The effect of packaging on the sales of consumer product cannot be overemphasized since consumers make quick judgments about product based on packaging. The packaging of a product communicates brand, image and usage having realized the present dynamics and the human want/need. It becomes essential for Guinness Nigeria Plc to know the importance of packaging as manufacturing organization.

To the manufacturers, it will make them adopt a better approach to taking packaging decisions; help them promote the image of the organisation and the brand. To the consumers, it will show that package is part of the product they buy and may help to reduce dissatisfaction felt after buying a product, stimulate their buying behaviour and help them choose a product from a wide range of similar products.

Also, academic community will not be left out, because this work will serve as a fertile ground for researchers who wish to carry out a study on this topic

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is primary concerned with the effects of packaging on sales of consumer product. This study/project work covers Guinness Nigeria Plc, Benin City. The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

1.7 Definition of Terms


Packaging is the general group of activities in product planning that involves designing and producing the wrapper for a product. Packaging is also the material used to wrap or produce goods that are sold in shop/ stores.


This is the general activities of giving a product to a buyer for exchange at price.

Person Selling:

This is the interaction of the seller and buyer for the purpose of facilitating exchange for mutual satisfaction of both parties (buyer and seller). It may also be defined as oral presentation in a conversation with one or more prospective purchase for the purpose of making sales.


Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customers wants profitably. Marketing is looking at the business through customer’s eye profitably. Marketing is the human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through exchange process.


A consumer is an individual who buys a product from the retail outlet and use them at their different homes while the individual business or institutional consumers generally buy for resale or for further production to be later sold to ultimate consumers.


A product is anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition or consumption. It includes physical objects, services, personalities, places, organization and ideas.

1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain a critical analysis of the effects of packaging on sale of consumer product.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations are made, which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefit in addressing the challenges of poor sales of consumer products due to poor packaging.

5.2 Summary

This study aimed at having a critical analysis of the effects of packaging on sales of consumer product. Three objectives were raised. These objectives include: To determine whether packaging has any influence on the sales of consumer goods, to know if packaging determine the price of a product and to determine of packaging has any role to play in promotion and protection of a product.

5.3 Conclusion

Based on the above findings pertaining to the objectives of the study the following conclusions are drawn.
Packaging is a dynamic force and the flag bearer of branded products in our society, influencing consumer buying behaviour, manufacturing firms should see it as a competitive tool and not toil with it because it projects the good image, brand and quality of a product while serving as a live wire to sales volume and product protection

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this research work, the researcher recommends that

  1. Manufacturing firms should periodically evaluate how consumers respond to their product packaging so as to enhance the competitiveness of their products in the market.
  2. Manufacturers should always ensure that their packaging appeals to their consumers which will increase the sales of their products.
  3. Manufacturing firms should ensure that the packaging reflects the quality of their product. 4. Since packaging brings real benefit to every firm that package their products, firms should always include packaging in their product decision so as to create a good image of their product and build brand equality in the minds of their consumers.
  4. Since packaging plays a role in production, preservation, distribution and marketing of goods, firms should treat packaging with utmost importance in product packaging budgetary allocation.
  5. Firms should ensure that their packaging includes information concerning product features usage and derivable benefits.
  6. Firms should ensure that they design packaging that cannot be tampered with, which if breached or missing will provide visible evidence to consumer that it’s been tampered with.

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