Impact Of Television And Newspaper Advert In The Marketing Of Consumer Product
This project is emphasizing on the impact advert creates in the mind of the consumers through television and newspaper media. Advertisement is all about letting the public know an existing product or its improvement in terms of quality or its price reduction.
To solve the research problem both primary and secondary data were collected. The research instrument used in collecting the data were questionnaires and interviews. Respondents consists of consumers and management and staff. From responses gotten form the respondents, some get to know about a product through those tow medias, some don’t and others do not know how they know about the product.
1.1 Background of the Study
The impact of Advertisement can never be over emphasized. Over the years, various forms of advert have been used to achieve one desired result or the other. The question that lies unanswered is what are the impact of Advertisement to the society? Most especially on consumer product. The advertiser of these numerous consumer products, why do they advertise? It has also been observed that even products that are very old and has attain market peak level are still been advertised? It is based on these observation that this research is been conducted.
Advertising fulfills a need that can be traced back for as long as man have bought and sold. It is an act that has developed over the years. Modern advertising took off after the world war II. The industrial boom and growth of the 1950’s spilled over into 1960’s. According to “Harold Macmilliam” British prime Minister said “you have never had it so good” as time passed his observation seemed to prove true. Affluence meant greater purchasing power which had to more production and need to increase sales. Since, there is an increase kin production what tool will be used to see that the product is made known to the public/society advertising was the key. The circle of supply and demand was complete all revolving around the hub-Advertising (Awake). Based on this research, we are going to give attention to two aspect or concentrate on the television and newspaper advert to see areas it has constituted either positively to the consumer or negatively to the consumer as regards to Enugu metropolis. The issue on hand is universal this goes to show its importance.
At from of the century space in Newspaper and Magazine was sold to a client who simply filled it with basic facts that they had a product to sell. Many organizations are spending so much for this purpose, our research and with due consultation with some organization like the Nigerian Bottling company, Guinness Nigeria. We saw the percentage of what is allocated to both television and newspaper advert. The reasons behind this huge amount was among the reason for this research. Since the second world war, most western nation if not all in the world have followed the lead of advertising, even developing countries like Nigeria is not an exemption.
Advertising is one of the most powerful, socializing forces in the culture. Advert cell more than products, they sell images, values, goals, concepts of who we are and who we should be, they shape our attitudes and our attitude shape our behaviour (awake 98 p. 3) the effect is felt by all through the television. It gets into our homes, even our children can also testify to its effect. When asked based on our research to describe marketing, most consumers would start off with specific advertisement they have seen and offers they have taken up or rejected. This awareness reflect the success of advertising. It is this access to the buyer or perspective buyer that the firm seeks when considering an investment on advertising. The firms spends money to communicate with group in the market place and achieve certain result.
There have been various definitions to advertising but according to Awake 98 p 3 – 11. Advertising is the action of making something known in nature. It is often essential for preservation and propagation of life. Pricilla N. Edoga (p. 7) Any paid form of impersonal communication about ideas, goals, services of an organization by an identified sponsor.
Since advertisement on both television and Newspaper are one of the tools that is been used by most firms/organization, how will its impact be measured? What are some of the idea that should be brought forward before using either television or newspaper. Certain questions are hoped to be answered such as
- How does advertising work?
- If there was less of it, would we the consumers be better or worse off?
- What part can it play in our lives.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There are many consumer products in the market, some of those products are well known in the market by the consumer while there are some other products that have long been in existence and yet the consumer are not aware of them. At times, certain products (consumer) that are new have gained wide publicity than those that are old, that have better features and quality. What are the reasons behind the market ability of those consumer products? Why do consumer prefer certain products to the others? What are some factors multating the awareness of certain product. The type of media which those products are advertised. Could it have effect on the product awareness? Success of some consumer products could it be as a result of quality and better television or newspaper advert?
1.3 General Objective
The general objective of this study was to assess the impact of television and newspaper advert in the consumer buying behaviour in Nigeria.
- To identify the relationship between newspaper advert and the consumer buying behaviour.
- To identify the relationship between television advertisement and the consumer buying behaviour.
- To identify the relationship between radio advertisement and the consumer buying behaviour.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the relationship between newspaper advert and the consumer buying behaviour?
- What are the relationship between radio advertisement and the consumer buying behaviour?
- Is there a relationship between television advertisement and the consumer buying behaviour?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study is very timely, especially today as we have new consumer products been produced and brought to the market. It should be noted that time, energy and money are been put in place to see what these products are completed. If they are produced and the consumers are not aware of it, of what use is the product to our society.
This is the more reason why organizations, private producers or manufacturers should endavour to advertise their product in whatever way possible but most especially through the television or newspaper, so that the users of those products be alert that this product exists, its benefit and usefulness should be projected well so that fast choice can be made. Even if the product is of high standard and quality, it would be of no use if the picture of the benefit and usefulness are not portrayed well.
In addition, the study will determine the factors that are responsible for lack of awareness of certain consumer products in the market. Various forms and types of advert will also be given attention. Limiting factors to organizational effective advert. It is expected that finding positive answer to these questions will bridge the gap that exist between media houses, advertisers and producers/ manufacturers.
Evaluating the quality of advert of consumer product should be given serious attention, most especially today that we are talking of promoting the marketing concept and the selling concept with the application of the marketing mix. Without advert it is obvious that the consumer will never know anything about the product. The company also will be affected in terms of estimation of sales increase and brand loyalty. Through this study, both producers and consumers will understand their short coming or weak point aimed at adopting measures to enhance the quality and efficiency of advertisement of consumer product. Advertisers should learn a strong lesson that for producers to succeed they should ensure that the task is not beyond them in terms of high cost required to project their product and company.
1.6 Scope of the Study
In order for this research to be successful and accurate, most of our findings were carried out in Enugu state. We got information and data from television stations, media houses and newspaper houses. The general public were not left out. Individual producers and firms that have embarked on advertisement in one way or the other. We also extended to use some of the promotional mix for comparism of the variable that we are using.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
Based on the topic, a more wider range of sources of information was needed but due to certain factors such as time the project was kicked off by May and is expected to end in August this time period is too short to have gathered all the necessary information that was needed. Another limitation is finance, gathering these data is not easy, it requires money, transportation cost, books to be bought, photocopies made. Since we lacked finance this made us not to go too deep in digging out facts. Poor response from respondents, negative attitude from producers and firm owners based on bias, so the necessary information at times was coded for one reason or the other. Tight programme from the advertisers, all this are some of the limitations we passed through during our study.
1.8 Definition of Terms
This refers to the advertiser purchase of media time or space for telling a story about the product or services.
Advertising is not a personal or face to face presentation.
The source of every advertising message is known.
It is an impersonal form of communication or presentation of goods, ideas or services conducted through paid media under open or identified sponsorship.
These are tangible items that satisfy our needs and wants.
This is a situation in which consumer are committed and dedicated to a particular product at all times. They are interested and will not buy any other if not that one.
This refers to all the features of promotion variables to achieve a desired goal.
This refers to the 4ps of market used to promote efficiency and effectiveness. Price, place, promotion and product.
The communication of a product brand or business by placing information about it in the media without paying for the time or media space directly.
This is a tool on public relation. It refers to any message about the organization that is communicated through the mass media but is not paid for by the organization.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters.
- The first chapter introduces the study. It provides the background of the study, statement of the problem, research objectives, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study as well as the organization of the study.
- Chapter two provides the literature review related to the study. It defines the key conceptual in the study. It also provides the theoretical perspectives, empirical studies and the conceptual framework of the study.
- Chapter three discusses the methodology of the study. It explains area of the study, research design, population of the study, sampling design, data collection methods, reliability and validity of the study as well data analysis procedures.
- Chapter four presents the findings of the study. Chapter five concludes the study. It provides the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
The study was conducted in Enugu-Nigeria. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of television and newspaper advert in the consumer buying behaviour in the airline industry with the reference to the Arik airways, Nigeria. The study involved 150 respondents, 140 respondents were Arik airways customers and 10 were Arik airways management. The study employed descriptive design. It was selected because it has the advantage of producing good amount of responses from a wide range of people. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected.
In this study, randomly sampling and focusing group sampling were used by picking only the sample that brought the best information that satisfied the intention of the study. Purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the sources of data. On the other hand the study employed judgment sampling. Purposive sampling method was used to get respondents from a group of normal staff. This enables the researcher to get respondents who have worked with the Arik airways for more than one year.
Both primary data and secondary data were collected. Primary data were collected through focus group discussion, observation, interview and questionnaire. On the other hand, secondary data were collected through documentary review.
From the findings of the study it may be concluded most of customers are influenced by advertisements on television followed by radio then newspaper and finally online media. Generally, it was observed that most of the consumers are affected by advertisement in the buying behaviour. Most of them they buy products which are mostly advert and they make them to be loyal. Television advertisement has more impact on consumer buying behaviour more than other media. Statistical analysis of consumer attitude shows that among three dimensions (loyalty, previous buying experience and word of mouth) are significant factors which effect consumer buying behaviour. Advertisers had their largest profits from knowledge of previous purchases of consumer and also the loyalty of consumer to any product plays another important impact in leading consumer attitude to purchase of that product as also noted by Mohammed and Alkubise (2012).
On the other hand, it was observed that traditional media (newspaper, radio and television) adverts are more trusted than new media advert. Reason of less significant impact of online ad on consumer purchase behaviour is the lack of trust and lack of industries involvement in online media. On the other case, online media has started to be familiar and beginning to be trusted by people in the society in the current time of 21st century. There are hundreds of advertising agencies but only few of them actively manage and control online media. Moreover, it was observed that advert has influence in consumer buying behaviour compared to marketing communications. People want to purchase products they have already seen or through experience. Word of mouth and other communication are also powerful of convincing consumer in buying behaviour. Moreover, old people are not easy to try new products compared to youth.
The study recommends that newspaper media should continue to be used in advertisement because still people believe and trust it. Advertisers should consider creativity when designing print advertisements.
The radio is among the media which has big influence to audience due to its strength such as to be flexible, universal and cheap. Therefore, recommends that advertisers should design radio adverts which are easy to be understood by customers.
Television has more power to influence more than other media. Advert which is displayed in television can be remembered easily and fast because people see and hear the advert. The study recommends that advertisers should use television adverts well and the message should be supported well by visual so as to gain new customers, create brand loyalty and persuade well.
Online media is very new to many people but it is fast, easy, cheap and global. It has no gate keepers which make it to be in some way not to be trusted as an old media. The study recommends that online media should be used as much as possible because it has no geographical boundaries. It has second chance and easy to assess. Online media can reach large number of customers and can help people to purchase products online fast and avoiding queuing. Advertiser should invest well enough in online media.
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