The Influence Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Decisions For Consumer Products In Imo State (A Case Study Of Joy Confectioneries Owerri)

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Project and Seminar Material for Marketing

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This topic of this research work “the influence of packaging on the consumer buying decisions for consumer products in Imo state” was cancel out to investigate the influence of packaging. On the purpose of this study the question-experimental research design was adopted to study the firm of confectionery goods manufacturers.
The primary data was collected from the respondents using the questionnaire. After a critical analysis of the data collected, the hypothesis were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA0 with the aid of statistical product and service solution (SPSS) packaging and the following findings were realized there is a relationship between product packaging and the consumer buying decision of confectionery products moderating factors do regulate the relationship between packaging and consumer buying decisions of business firm, based on these findings, the following were recommended, packaging should be look upon as a cost tool or a production problem.
Again confectionery manufacturers should liaise with user of their product package so as to enable them know when there is need for improvement.

Table Of Contents

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Overview of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope / delimitation of the Study
  • 1.7 Operational definitions of terms

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature Review
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The concept of product
  • 2.3.1 Basic characteristics of product
  • 2.3.2 The role of the product
  • 2.3 The concept of packaging
  • 2.4 impotence of packaging as a marketing tool
  • 2.5 Basic packaging functions
  • 2.5.1 The promotional functions
  • 2.5.2 The productive functions
  • 2.6 Requirement for product packaging
  • 2.6.1 the distributors requirements
  • 2.6.2 Consumer requirements
  • 2.6.3 The legal requirements
  • 2.7 Packaging challenges
  • 2.8. Criticism of packaging
  • 2.9 Consumer buying decision
  • 2.19 Situational / environmental factors

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Research Methodology
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Data collection method
  • 3.4 Population and sample Size
  • 3.5 Sample Technique
  • 3.6 Questionnaire
  • 3.7 Validity and Reliability of measure
  • 3.7 Description of data analysis tools

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Presentation and Analysis of data
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Data Presentation and analysis
  • 4.3 interpretation off findings

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of Findings
  • 5.3 Conclusions
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Overview Of The Study

Historically, management has considered packaging significantly only for the purpose of containing the product and had assigned the sole responsibility of packaging to the production department. However, modern marketing managers regards packaging as a supplementary promotional tool for their product, it has been shown that in self service store, it is packaging that does selling, No wonder it is often regarded as the silent salesman.

Packaging involves enclosing mechanize in a container for marketing display, sanitation, convenience in handling and use of safety and preservation. Since 1979s when folding cartons was discovered the packaging industry has grown steadily with period of rapid expansion occurring intermittently. The major revolution merchandising era when mass production teaching we were inaugurated and individual sealed packaging replace bulk merchandise.

The most commonly used packaging material include corks, asbestos, rubbers, plastics, papers and several types of strong materials such as lead glass, packaging has gone all the way back to the down of history when primitive societies carry barriers centuries packaging primary roles was to hold, protect and transport goods from manufacturers to the users of industrial goods. A package therefore keeps a product intact and available to the final consumers in its original states, protecting the quality of the product form physical damage where the traditional purposes.

Kotler (1984) defined packaging as the activities of designing and producing the containers for a product. He added that the container is called the packaging and it might include there levels the primary 9that contain the conthits ) the secondary 9that covers the primary container) and the tertiary (that protect the entire product during haulage). The type and levels of packaging adopted depends on the types of product market. Promotion on the other hand represents all those activities embarked upon the company to communicate its products merits and to persuade target customers to buy them.

Arowomole and Adeyemi (2004) define packaging as the general group of activities in product planning that involves designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. Packaging provides tow major services for both consumers and produces that is it services as a protect measure for the product and also promotional device. Some packages such as coke bottles are world famous. Materials used to protect goods, also an opportunity to present the brand and logo.

Packaging has recently been in importance. At times it becomes very difficult to determine whether greater emphasis should be put on the protective functions of packaging than on its promotion functions. Formerly, must firms saw packaging as only a container for the physical product without realizing the other marketing importance of the product package especially its impotence towards the promotion of the product. Due to the increase importance, which is presently attached to promotional functions of to be regarded as “any person” jobs. The job of product packaging now rests on the hands f quality product managers or specialist trained in that particular field of marketing in most organization.

The ever increasing customer demands on organizations for more covalent package has pushed marketing managers to develop packaging with more acceptable materials, shapes and forms. Poor packaging kills a product and can also dissatisfaction among channel intermediaries.

1.2 Statement Of Problem:

Despite the fact that numerous studies in the past have contributed to the theoretical and practical knowledge on packaging, demonstrated that packaging plays sufficient role in marketing of goods and services from all sectors of productive economy, yet quite a number of small and large scale manufacturers have shown less concern to packaging their products effectively. Confectioneries, especially the small one have been found wanting in this area.
The ability to incorporate into packaging decision the right choice of material, colour, shape, design, style, size and promotional information has been a major challenge facing marketing managers in the small and medium scale ventures. Also the inadequate budget devoted to product packaging that affects effective packaging decision of organizations. It is as a result that this study is concerned with investigating how and the extent product packaging can change consumers decisions.

1.3 Objective Of The Study:

The purpose of carrying out this study is to ascertain the effect of product packaging materials, design, shape, style, colour and promotional information) on consumer buying decision for confectionery products in Owerri, Imo State. The study also has the following specific objectives.

  • To find out whether the choice of packaging material affects consumer patronage of confectionery product
  • To determine the role of packaging feather (colour, design, shape, style, size and weight) effect the consumer buying of confectioneries.
  • To understand how the promotional information / label contribute to consumer of choice of confectioneries.
  • To know whether the cost structure of packaging is justified by the marketing growth of confectioneries
  • To investigate whether moderating factors government policies, technology, competition) effect the consumer buying decisions of confectionery products.

1.4 Research Questions:

Below are the research questions which this work is set to tackle.

  • Does the choice of packaging materials affect consumer purchase of confectionery products.
  • What roles do the packaging features (colour, design, shape, style, size and weight) play in the consumer for confectionery goods?
  • How do promotional messages contribute to the consumption of confectioneries.
  • Does the cost structure of packaging correspond with the expected marketing growth of confectioneries.
  • Do the moderating factors (government policies, technology, competition affect the relationship between packaging and the consumer buying decisions of confectionery products.

1.6 Significance Of The Study:

It has been proven that effective packaging decisions of firms enhance the market ability of their products, this work is relevant in the sense that it will enlighten manufacturers on the measure to be adopted to sustain the effect packaging has on consumer buying decision process and in building a loyal customers.

This study will also be of academic value since the contents could be used as a basis for other studies on packaging. The findings of the intended is expected to contribute to the body of existing knowledge in the are of packaging and its influence.

1.7 Scope And Limitation Of The Study:

This research study is intended to investigate and appraise packaging as it affects manufactures of confectioneries in Owerri, Imo State, it will outline the various roles packaging play in selling off confectionery products.
Again in carrying out this research, the researcher was confronted with a number of problems and limitation owning to financial and time limitations owing to financial and time constraint, the researcher was unable to travel to other parts of the country for effective data collection hence the research for effective data collection hence the research was carried out in Owerri metropolis.

Respondents were equally reluctant to respond to the questionnaires in spite of the fact that assurance was given by the researcher that every information gathered would be held in strict confidence. Finally some respondents do not have the requisite knowledge or are unwilling to disclose the facts where they are available.

1.8 Operation Definitions Of Terms:


This is refers to the general activity of developing a wrapper or containers for a product.

Supplementary Promotional Tool:

Refers to supportive means of including sales other than advertising personal selling, sales other than advertising, personal selling, sales promotional and publicity.

Self Service Store:

These are specialize outlets which he have stock displayed on shelves for customer easy access.


This is anything that can be offer to a market for attention, consumption and must satisfy the consumers need.

Silent Salesman:

This refer to the ability of a product packaging to include an exchange process.

Brand Mark:

This refers to the aspect of a product that has a legal right and protects the product from limitation.

Buying Decision:

This is the ability to decide quickly and confidently on which product to buy how to buy (t) where to buy it and when to buy it.


This is the power to produce an affect, specially on character, beliefs or actions.

Confectionery Products:

There are those products that are been made with flour fat and water examples of those products are cake, meat pie, peanuts, chin chin etc.

Loyal Customers:

These are the group of people who believe that a company’s products are the best. As such they develop confidence in buying the firm’s product.


A company or person who makes or product goods or production on large scale with machinery.

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How to nail it on the head during your project defence

You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.

Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.

Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.

Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.

Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.

Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.

Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.

Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.

These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.

The structure of a good project work

Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are

1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.

4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.

5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.



Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy ( a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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