The Influence Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Decisions For Consumer Products In Imo State (A Case Study Of Joy Confectioneries Owerri)

Project and Seminar Material for Marketing

The Influence Of Packaging On Consumer Buying Decisions For Consumer Products In Imo State (A Case Study Of Joy Confectioneries Owerri)


This topic of this research work “the influence of packaging on the consumer buying decisions for consumer products in Imo state” was cancel out to investigate the influence of packaging. On the purpose of this study the question-experimental research design was adopted to study the firm of confectionery goods manufacturers.

The primary data was collected from the respondents using the questionnaire. After a critical analysis of the data collected, the hypothesis were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA0 with the aid of statistical product and service solution (SPSS) packaging and the following findings were realized there is a relationship between product packaging and the consumer buying decision of confectionery products moderating factors do regulate the relationship between packaging and consumer buying decisions of business firm, based on these findings, the following were recommended, packaging should be look upon as a cost tool or a production problem.

Again confectionery manufacturers should liaise with user of their product package so as to enable them know when there is need for improvement.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Overview of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope / delimitation of the Study
  • 1.7 Operational definitions of terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The concept of product
  • 2.3.1 Basic characteristics of product
  • 2.3.2 The role of the product
  • 2.3 The concept of packaging
  • 2.4 impotence of packaging as a marketing tool
  • 2.5 Basic packaging functions
  • 2.5.1 The promotional functions
  • 2.5.2 The productive functions
  • 2.6 Requirement for product packaging
  • 2.6.1 the distributors requirements
  • 2.6.2 Consumer requirements
  • 2.6.3 The legal requirements
  • 2.7 Packaging challenges
  • 2.8. Criticism of packaging
  • 2.9 Consumer buying decision
  • 2.19 Situational / environmental factors

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Data collection method
  • 3.4 Population and sample Size
  • 3.5 Sample Technique
  • 3.6 Questionnaire
  • 3.7 Validity and Reliability of measure
  • 3.7 Description of data analysis tools

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Data Presentation and analysis
  • 4.3 interpretation off findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary of Findings
  • 5.3 Conclusions
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Overview Of The Study

Historically, management has considered packaging significantly only for the purpose of containing the product and had assigned the sole responsibility of packaging to the production department. However, modern marketing managers regards packaging as a supplementary promotional tool for their product, it has been shown that in self service store, it is packaging that does selling, No wonder it is often regarded as the silent salesman.

Packaging involves enclosing mechanize in a container for marketing display, sanitation, convenience in handling and use of safety and preservation. Since 1979s when folding cartons was discovered the packaging industry has grown steadily with period of rapid expansion occurring intermittently. The major revolution merchandising era when mass production teaching we were inaugurated and individual sealed packaging replace bulk merchandise.

The most commonly used packaging material include corks, asbestos, rubbers, plastics, papers and several types of strong materials such as lead glass, packaging has gone all the way back to the down of history when primitive societies carry barriers centuries packaging primary roles was to hold, protect and transport goods from manufacturers to the users of industrial goods. A package therefore keeps a product intact and available to the final consumers in its original states, protecting the quality of the product form physical damage where the traditional purposes.

Kotler (1984) defined packaging as the activities of designing and producing the containers for a product. He added that the container is called the packaging and it might include there levels the primary 9that contain the conthits ) the secondary 9that covers the primary container) and the tertiary (that protect the entire product during haulage). The type and levels of packaging adopted depends on the types of product market. Promotion on the other hand represents all those activities embarked upon the company to communicate its products merits and to persuade target customers to buy them.

Arowomole and Adeyemi (2004) define packaging as the general group of activities in product planning that involves designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. Packaging provides tow major services for both consumers and produces that is it services as a protect measure for the product and also promotional device. Some packages such as coke bottles are world famous. Materials used to protect goods, also an opportunity to present the brand and logo.

Packaging has recently been in importance. At times it becomes very difficult to determine whether greater emphasis should be put on the protective functions of packaging than on its promotion functions. Formerly, must firms saw packaging as only a container for the physical product without realizing the other marketing importance of the product package especially its impotence towards the promotion of the product. Due to the increase importance, which is presently attached to promotional functions of to be regarded as “any person” jobs. The job of product packaging now rests on the hands f quality product managers or specialist trained in that particular field of marketing in most organization.

The ever increasing customer demands on organizations for more covalent package has pushed marketing managers to develop packaging with more acceptable materials, shapes and forms. Poor packaging kills a product and can also dissatisfaction among channel intermediaries.

1.2 Statement Of Problem:

Despite the fact that numerous studies in the past have contributed to the theoretical and practical knowledge on packaging, demonstrated that packaging plays sufficient role in marketing of goods and services from all sectors of productive economy, yet quite a number of small and large scale manufacturers have shown less concern to packaging their products effectively. Confectioneries, especially the small one have been found wanting in this area.
The ability to incorporate into packaging decision the right choice of material, colour, shape, design, style, size and promotional information has been a major challenge facing marketing managers in the small and medium scale ventures. Also the inadequate budget devoted to product packaging that affects effective packaging decision of organizations. It is as a result that this study is concerned with investigating how and the extent product packaging can change consumers decisions.

1.3 Objective Of The Study:

The purpose of carrying out this study is to ascertain the effect of product packaging materials, design, shape, style, colour and promotional information) on consumer buying decision for confectionery products in Owerri, Imo State. The study also has the following specific objectives.

  • To find out whether the choice of packaging material affects consumer patronage of confectionery product
  • To determine the role of packaging feather (colour, design, shape, style, size and weight) effect the consumer buying of confectioneries.
  • To understand how the promotional information / label contribute to consumer of choice of confectioneries.
  • To know whether the cost structure of packaging is justified by the marketing growth of confectioneries
  • To investigate whether moderating factors government policies, technology, competition) effect the consumer buying decisions of confectionery products.

1.4 Research Questions:

Below are the research questions which this work is set to tackle.

  • Does the choice of packaging materials affect consumer purchase of confectionery products.
  • What roles do the packaging features (colour, design, shape, style, size and weight) play in the consumer for confectionery goods?
  • How do promotional messages contribute to the consumption of confectioneries.
  • Does the cost structure of packaging correspond with the expected marketing growth of confectioneries.
  • Do the moderating factors (government policies, technology, competition affect the relationship between packaging and the consumer buying decisions of confectionery products.

1.6 Significance Of The Study:

It has been proven that effective packaging decisions of firms enhance the market ability of their products, this work is relevant in the sense that it will enlighten manufacturers on the measure to be adopted to sustain the effect packaging has on consumer buying decision process and in building a loyal customers.

This study will also be of academic value since the contents could be used as a basis for other studies on packaging. The findings of the intended is expected to contribute to the body of existing knowledge in the are of packaging and its influence.

1.7 Scope And Limitation Of The Study:

This research study is intended to investigate and appraise packaging as it affects manufactures of confectioneries in Owerri, Imo State, it will outline the various roles packaging play in selling off confectionery products.
Again in carrying out this research, the researcher was confronted with a number of problems and limitation owning to financial and time limitations owing to financial and time constraint, the researcher was unable to travel to other parts of the country for effective data collection hence the research for effective data collection hence the research was carried out in Owerri metropolis.

Respondents were equally reluctant to respond to the questionnaires in spite of the fact that assurance was given by the researcher that every information gathered would be held in strict confidence. Finally some respondents do not have the requisite knowledge or are unwilling to disclose the facts where they are available.

1.8 Operation Definitions Of Terms:


This is refers to the general activity of developing a wrapper or containers for a product.

Supplementary Promotional Tool:

Refers to supportive means of including sales other than advertising personal selling, sales other than advertising, personal selling, sales promotional and publicity.

Self Service Store:

These are specialize outlets which he have stock displayed on shelves for customer easy access.


This is anything that can be offer to a market for attention, consumption and must satisfy the consumers need.

Silent Salesman:

This refer to the ability of a product packaging to include an exchange process.

Brand Mark:

This refers to the aspect of a product that has a legal right and protects the product from limitation.

Buying Decision:

This is the ability to decide quickly and confidently on which product to buy how to buy (t) where to buy it and when to buy it.


This is the power to produce an affect, specially on character, beliefs or actions.

Confectionery Products:

There are those products that are been made with flour fat and water examples of those products are cake, meat pie, peanuts, chin chin etc.

Loyal Customers:

These are the group of people who believe that a company’s products are the best. As such they develop confidence in buying the firm’s product.


A company or person who makes or product goods or production on large scale with machinery.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Summary Of Findings

This study was conducted to investigate the influence of packaging on consumer buying decisions for consumer product in Imo State.

The first finding based on packaging variables shows that there is relationship between product packaging and consumer buying decision for confectionery goods. Evidence also showed that the product packaging strategy of the firm is not truly effective. On the other hand, materialting factors (ie government polices, technology, and competition etc) were found to have a strong effection consumer buying decision for confectionary products. It was also discovered that the moderating factors have an intese effect on the marketing decisions of the company.

5.2 Conclusion

The opinion of the experts is that packaging is that the major determinant on consumer buying decision for consumer product especially confectionary products. It also enables a firm to differentiate its homogeneous physical product or service avoid pure competition. They also recognize that packaging is important for protection, promotion and convenience. And again that a seemingly minor promotional change in package design, adding a more appealing illustration may double sales growth while another seemingly minor change might cut a brain share of the market in half.

Additionally marketing services as sales to appeal devices and it enables prospects to identify differentiate a firm product or brand from another in terms of repect purchase. In other hand, packaging variables have emotional implications, which bounds and controls and individual’s decision. Based on the finding of this research work, the reach therefore agreed that packaging is the major determinate consumer buying decision for confectionery products manufacturers. It is a general notion that no firm can effectively operate in a vacuum with the interference of certain environmental factors which exist in the micro and macro external environment. This assertion was further confirmed by this study.

5.3 Recommendation

In the light of the findings of the project the following recommendations were given.

  1. Joy confectionary should improve its product packaging strategy especially iin the area of material used in packaging products.
  2. The firm should improve its budget allocation to product packaging since consumers are willing to pay extra on good and superior packaging.
  3. The company should closely and regally monitor its business environment is very turbulent in order determines current trends (opportunities and threats) and competitively position itself now and in the future.

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