The Effect Of Food Packaging Material On The Environment

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

The Effect Of Food Packaging Material On The Environment


This thesis focuses on the attributes of packaging that can be used to preserve resources efficiently and reduce the environmental impact of the food- packaging system. The service perspective is used to increase knowledge about consumer interaction with packages. Fifteen packaging attributes, for example, ‘easy to empty’, ‘hygienic’ and ‘contain the right quantity’, were identified as influencing the amount of food losses at the consumer.

The result showed that there are potentials to both increase consumer satisfaction and decrease the environmental impact of the food-packaging system, when new packaging design reduces food losses. This is especially true for food items with high environmental impact, e.g. meat and dairy products, and for food items that have a high share of loss, e.g. bread. The study showed that about 20% to 25% of household food waste was related to packaging.

Finally there is a discussion of packaging research in the context of sustainability principles, and suggestions for further research.

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Food packaging is just one among ways of food preservation for when food is been packaged, it is set for shipment and marketing. Food Technologist who must have a good knowledge of technology materials, labour equipment, money research, engineering and management is in any food-processing establishment.

Particularly, food packages purposely protect the products from environment hazards throughout the period of the shelf life. Some industries can even be instituted purposely for food packaging. For these facts, every Food Technologist must acquire the knowledge of packaging principle and practice as to meet up with the specific requirement of food in order way to retain its quality, throughout the processing of storage and distribution and even specified the demands in which the food imposed on the packages.

Though, it the sole responsibility of the specialist who can design and manufacture these packages. And because of that, the packages physically protect and maintain quality of the product, and it attracts the consumers and even be within an average at economic cost.

Packaging Definition

It is an overall stages in production of product planning involving designing and producing the container or wrapper of the product. The following can serve as a definition of packaging. Packaging could also be an elaborated mattress where you sleep on and the sheets and blanket covering it came out from packaging. Packaging also is likened to a cereal you have for breakfast and the milk and sugar on it, which in packages. Packaging materials are towels, soap toothpaste, colognes and lotion and the clothes you wear a you get ready to tale the days activities, all comes in packages. Food packaging materials could be defined as you go through the day nearly everything that you touch eat use or with which arrived in a package.

Food packaging materials can be enlisted as common place such as intergal part of our existence which tends to take things for granted, ignoring their presence and contribution of our every daily lives. It is prescribed as military supplies; where more general sense, are purchased for the use of government agency services. It is also an embodiment of a dynamic of a center where people are socially engaged for the day.

Packaging is explained as merely preserved food over a past few years which have become a tool of marketing operations.

History Of Food Packaging

An early man developed his own packaging technology by using leaves for wrapping purposes in Nigeria such as cocoyam, banana, and plantain and “uma” leaves. Again the skin of a goat for the first flexible packaging material in the environmental through transport of water and wine. Early containers were made by placating rushes or reeds and small wooden casks produced by methods similar to those used by coopers today which is evidenced.

Ancient Egyptians were masters of art of preservation and this is demonstrated in tombs of pharaohs, not only in the preservation of bodies but also on other materials. However, it is just beginning with modern packaging as original from industrial resolution changed the structure of society and concentrated through large members of people in the town, cities so altering their habits and creating a great demand for similar quantities of various products in large replications.

Today packaging must do much more than merely preserve food and over the past few years which have seen packaging more and more become a tool of marketing operation.

It protects the meat product from microbial contamination’s, light, physical damage or chemical changes. Moreover a good job of packaging with the proper type of packing material may also enhance the appearance of the products and make I t more appealing to the consumers.

It again has a multi-purpose functions for food product primary manufacturer protect the food product by keeping it in good condition and preserve the flavour until it researchers the consumer.

It is essentially suitable forms of packaging products to a finished level. Food material used for packaging must not contaminate the product. It must also be effective in preventing the products from deteriorating.

Types Of Food Packaging Materials
  1. Foil – 0015
  2. Laminates of one or more of the above materials
  3. Coasted sheets
  4. Films M.S.A.P (moisture resistant sealable anchors well to product, transparent)
  5. Metals such as tin plate, tinfree steel and aluminum
  6. Plastics which including a variety of homogeneous films, coasted films, laminates with other plastics, papers or metals (eg aluminum)
  7. Papers, paperboardsm fiber boards
  8. Traditional. This cannot withstand rough handling but have no advertising potential and are not suitable in protecting the product in long distance distribution.
  9. Industrial; This is where material is used for packaging of food widely by including cartons, cups boxes etc.
Selection Of Packaging Materials

This depend intrinsically on natures and other properties of product and on the other consideration indicted above

Functions Of Food Packaging Container Of Product

Obviously, it act as a carrier by making it possible to move he product from the point where it is made to the point of final consumers. Examples are industrial gases, oxygen, propane carbondioxide and so on.


Sometimes utility or convenience features in packaging where most people acquainted with convenience features in packaging.


They must able to identify the product, inform the user, and motivated the consumer to buy the product, use it properly and purchase it again.


It must keep the product clean and provide a barrier against dirt and other infection. It must provide protection of food against physical damage, moisture, oxygen and light etc.


It’s efficiently and economically utilized on the packaging line during the actual operation of putting the food into the package. This means that it must be designed to run an already buy line for a purpose.


It provide an identity information and sales appeal. The retail which must sell what they protect as well as what they sell.


Degree should be built into convenience design which will not only supply the ultimate consumer with, say an easy opening, closing but must provide convenience at its intermediate stage in handling through warehouse and transport during distribution.

Role Of Food Packaging

There container product for your inspection abound in nearly every store you go into. Again large portion of some industries go into packaging about 70% of all glass produced in the United State is used for packaging, most of it is for food and beverages.

About half of he fiber products made in the U.S. today go into packaging, appearing as paper and paperboard packages and corrugated paperboard shipping containers for a board range of product. The dollar value of those materials is frequently estimated to worth well over 0 billion which means when its materials passes through further manufacturing steps, and the value of others services.

The Characteristics Of A Good Packaging Material
  1. An oxygen barrier (for frozen and cured meats not for fresh) most present oxygen to present lowering quality.
  2. Moldable and pliable at low temperature
  3. Flavorless and tasteless
  4. Kesistant to scuffing and tearing
  5. High …. Strength
  6. Adequate of labeling
  7. Time saving and also low price
  8. Most barrier moisture more through in form of vapour. Generally good moisture vapour barriers are good oxygen barrier.
  9. It must also prevent us with stripability and attractive.

1.2 Objectives Of The Study

The objective of this project work is to examine the effect and importance of packaging on sales and protection of goods. The specific objectives are:

  1. To also know to which extent packaging could be used in product differentiation and identification.
  2. To identify the importance of packaging as a promotional tool to the sales of product.
  3. To know the environmental problems and prospects of packaging, to identify and possible to suggest way of enhancing improved package product.

1.3 Significance Of The Study

This study is meant to be reference material for other subsequent researches who might be interested in delivering into similar or related subject topic.

It will also assist the manufacturers in principles and methods of packaging concept, which is the definition of what packaging should basically be or do for a particular product and compatible with public policy. It will also benefit them in designing packages for their products to suit the taste and preference of the target market and to enable them know what consumers except on the package.

The study will emphasize the promotional aspect of packaging to the producers. It will also assist them in packaging their products to perform the function of product differentiation and identification.

To the consumers, the study will help them on what they should expect on the product packaged. Such as brand, name, product content and ingredients with safety warning manufactured and expiry date and how to use the product etc.

1.4 Scope Of The Study

This study shall deal extensively with “The Effect of Packaging on Sales of Good” to the consumers as well as the manufacturer. The research will cover the effect of packaging from the general perspective hence, a case of a particular firm will not be required in a study like this.

1.5 Limitation Of The Study/Delimitation

In the process of writing this extended essay, one of the problem encountered was inadequate funds i.e. lack of finance which forced the researcher to limit the scope of the study.

Another constraint was having to travel a number of time to source for information, this was not easy because it was done along side my lectures and study.

In other words, time was not on my side. The difficulty of laying my hands on current journals and magazines also did not heel matter. The writer had to rely mostly on information gleaned from practitioners.

Chapter Five

Conclusion And Recommendation


It was proved that packaging as a promotional tools can really stand as a strong means of product differentiation and it can increase a product rate of turnover.

The study has shown that a well closed in a functional package often remain on the shelf of the seller. Package also promote sales at a jet space because it is a “silent salesman”. The success of any product in the market directly depends on the packaging of such product promotion price and place. The package provides an element in these four strategies that can be manipulated in such a way as to directly influence the success of any marketing plan e.g. Lever Brother Plc and Smithkline Beecham Plc that produces Close-Up and Maclean have success in the market based on their well-designed packaged product, influenced by the use of marketing strategies, both companies uses the three level of packaging.


Based on the research, the following are recommended with the hope that, if applied at the right time and under the right condition, products will perform well in the market;

  1. The management of firms should make it imperative to package their product in an attractive, informative and creative form to help the buyers identify and differentiate product easily. Since packaging is an important promotional tool, the management should emphasize and ensure proper packaging, because it is an endorsement of intent which sometimes creates impulse buying and can also increase sales turnover.
  2. Firms are advised to seal package properly to avoid unnecessary waste caused by damage which affects both the producer and consumers. Proper sealing will enable the package to perform its functions of protection for the core product or ease of handling the product.
  3. The organization should enlighten the customers about any package alteration in order to rebuild the product image, convince the loyal customers not to switch preference and make them believe that the quality that is written on the package. This can be done through other promotional activities or tools such as advertising personal selling, sales promotion, publicity, etc.
  4. The management of firms should take the dynamism of the society into consideration because it has direct influence and effect on packaging. Therefore, the need to conduct research on packaging to suit changes in consumers taste and preferences is inevitable. It also helps in developing better packaging strategy.
  5. Features and all necessary information about the product should be clear and readable to all customers of the product, for example; the date of manufacturing, batch number and expiry date should boldly be printed on the package.
  6. Language that pre-dominate the major area, were the product is produced should be in the package in addition to the lingua franca.
  7. The materials used as package container should be strong and durable so as to endure every hardship in transit until it reaches the final consumer.
  8. Packages should either be easily disposable or be re-used by the consumer for other domestic purposes.

The Effect Of Food Packaging Material On The Environment

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