Effect Of Mkpuru Mmiri Among Secondary School Students In South-East Nigeria

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Effect Of Mkpuru Mmiri Among Secondary School Students In South-East Nigeria


Abstract


This study focused on the Effect Of Mkpuru Mmiri Among Secondary School Students In South-East Nigeria, Ebonyi State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the rate of mkpuru mmiri usage among the secondary school students; ascertaining the effect of mkpuru mmiri usage on the behavourial disposition of the secondary school students in south-east nigeria and investigate the influence of mkpuru mmiri usage on the academic performance of the secondary school students.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students of selected secondary schools in Ikwo Local Government in Ebonyi state.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of terms
  • 1.9 Organizations of the study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the study
  • 3.3 Sample size determination
  • 3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of data collection
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the study
  • 3.10 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Interpretation of Result

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Drug use is a serious public health problem in contemporary Nigeria. Aside from using cannabis (Dumbili, 2020a; Nelson, 2021), many young Nigerians also use prescription drugs such as tramadol and codeine for nonmedical purposes (Dumbili, 2020b). Based on multiple recent media reports (e.g., News Agency of Nigeria, 2021; Njoku et al., 2021; Ulasi, 2021), many young people in Eastern Nigeria have added methamphetamine to their drug repertoire. This article synthesizes the recent media reportage of methamphetamine use in Eastern Nigeria and highlights the available evidence, showing the factors facilitating its use. The remainder of the article is divided into four sections. First, we present an overview (a brief history) of methamphetamine, tracing its origin and describing the factors that motivate its use and the consequences for users. Second, we summarise methamphetamine use in Sub-Saharan Africa and present empirical data from an interview with a crystal methamphetamine user in Eastern Nigeria. The next section is a summary of how local production of methamphetamine and drug trafficking may be responsible for the current widespread use in Eastern Nigeria. The last section then recommends possible solutions to the growing methamphetamine use prevalence and suggests areas for future research.

Methamphetamine; a derivative of amphetamine – is a central nervous system chemical stimulant that can be ingested orally, injected, snorted, or smoked (Anglin et al., 2000). Methamphetamine’s street names include crank, crystal meth, ice, and speed (Sato, 2008), amongst others. Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 by Nagayoshi Nagai- a Japanese pharmacologist who synthesized it from ephedrine – while his compatriot, Akira Ogata, further synthesized the drug into a crystallized format in 1919 (Sato, 2008). Methamphetamine use was unpopular until World War II (1939-1945) when countries like Germany, Japan, and the United States of America (USA) supplied their soldiers with the substance to enhance their ‘‘endurance and performance’’ (Anglin et al., 2000, p.138).
The misuse of the drug was first recorded in Japan after the war (1945-195), and this was because the surplus from military supplies ‘‘flooded the market’’ (Anglin et al., 2000, p.138). Since then, methamphetamine use has become a global phenomenon. Several countries such as Australia (Degenhardt et al., 2017), the USA (Sommers et al., 2006) and Thailand (German et al., 2006), amongst others, have reported methamphetamine use and its associated
harms. Currently, methamphetamine is an internationally controlled, Schedule II or illegal substance in most countries. However, its use is still widespread worldwide, primarily due to the activities of drug traffickers and illegal manufacturers/laboratories (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [henceforth, UNODC], 2017). According to the 2021 World Drug Report, 27 million people used methamphetamine and amphetamine in 2019 globally (UNODC, 2021). Furthermore, the UNODC (2021, p.48) noted that: the number of countries and territories reporting seizures of methamphetamine rose from 79 in the period 2005–2009 to 111 in the period 2015–2019, suggesting a significant increase in the geographical spread of methamphetamine trafficking at the global level.

Studies have shown the multifaceted factors that influence or motivate methamphetamine use and the drug’s effects on users. For example, methamphetamine use can trigger the brain and central nervous system, increasing heart rate and blood pressure; it is also believed to enhance heightened alertness, energy, and concentration (Parsons, 2014). Sensation-seeking, pleasure, or fun motivate methamphetamine use (Brecht et al., 2004). According to Anglin et al. (2000, p.137), ‘‘the alertness, euphoria, and sense of wellbeing’’ that methamphetamine use generates ‘‘last considerably longer than similar effects resulting from cocaine use and the drug is metabolized by the body at a much slower rate’’. Among Malaysian men, the main motivations for using methamphetamine include, to enhance ‘‘sexual capacity, heighten sexual pleasure and enhance sexual exploration and adventurism’’, although they also use it to enhance their energy for work performance (Lim et al., 2018, p.1). In the USA, studies have reported that enhancing sexual urge and pleasure motivate methamphetamine use (Sexton et al., 2006), while the drug’s easy availability and affordability have been described as the drivers among those who use the substance to self-treat chronic pain and emotional problems (Hansen et al., 2021).

Aside from being highly addictive, methamphetamine use is associated with many negative outcomes, including anxiety, cardiac arrhythmia, hallucinations, insomnia, paranoia, stomach cramps, and stroke (Anglin et al., 2000; Brecht et al., 2004). Other consequences are depression, convulsions, seizures (Sommers et al., 2006), violent/aggressive behaviour, crime (Degenhardt et al., 2008; Sexton et al., 2006) and financial and work-related problems (Brecht et al., 2004), amongst others.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Drug abuse is pandemic problem even on the increase in an alarming rate in Nigeria today. About two decades ago incidence of drug trafficking in Nigeria was low and abuse was minimal, but today drug has destroyed and killed many people in the society. Students in secondary school are the majority in this act. In view of this the research is embarked on to highlighting the incidence of drug abuse.

Over the years, it has been observed that students from some secondary schools in south eastern part of the country are in a form of drug addiction (especially to Methamphetamine) or the other as well as being involved in drug abuse. This research is therefore designed to view immediate Effect Of Mkpuru Mmiri Among Secondary School Students In South-East Nigeria.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of mkpuru mmiri among secondary school students in south-east Nigeria. specifically, the study aims;

  1. To examine the rate of mkpuru mmiri usage among the secondary school students
  2. To ascertain the effect of mkpuru mmiri usage on the behavourial disposition of the secondary school students in south-east nigeria
  3. To investigate the influence of mkpuru mmiri usage on the academic performance of the secondary school students

1.4 Research Question

The study will provide answers to the following research questions

  1. What is the the rate of mkpuru mmiri usage among the secondary school students ?
  2. Does mkpuru mmiri usage affect the behavourial disposition of the secondary school students in south-east nigeria ?
  3. Does mkpuru mmiri usage influence the academic performance of the secondary school students ?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The importance of this study is to provide resource materials for many that want to have deeper knowledge about the cause, effect and control of drug abuse and addiction. This research will encourage organizations like NAFDAC, NDLEA, health organizations like WHO, SHE and government parastatals to establish drug rehabilitation centers to help victims of drug abuse and addiction. More so, the significance of this study is to outline the Effect Of Mkpuru Mmiri Among Secondary School Students In South-East Nigeria.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study will examine the main Effect Of Mkpuru Mmiri Among Secondary School Students In South-East Nigeria, the effect of the Mkpuru mmiri on the students and the strategies that could take to address the problem associated with the drug abuse among students. Hence the study will be delimited to secondary schools in Eastern Nigeria.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

A lot of problems were faced when carrying out this study. The first big restriction was the time the study was supposed to be finished, combined with the fact that the research was performed alongside regular academic work. Another key quandary was finance owing to the present inflationary trends to the country transportation problems and risk of being on the road to various libraries, for vital information and materials. Inadequate literature was the third major concern, as Mkpuru Mmiri is an issue that has not been properly and thoroughly studied. This study was able to produce meaningful materials that seem important to the subject, despite the above set backs.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine is a potent central nervous system stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

Excessive Use of Drugs

This is when an individual takes in drug without following the current prescription of the doctor

Use of Hard Drugs

Hard drugs are capable of affecting the state of the body or mind by either depressing or stimulating the central nervous system or producing other biochemical harm to the society at large.

Stimulants

This are the kinds of drugs that stimulates the nervous system of an individual to behave extra-ordinary leading such individuals to misbehave. The health implication is that the individual is acting on the influence of a cultivating factors such as tobacco, cocaine e.t.c. common incidence that happen around us today is on the influence of those stimulants and if care is not taken could lead to mental disorder.

Depressants

These are sleeping inducing drugs they are used to calm anxious and restless subjects. They are barbiturales and non barbiturates that are capable of producing some degree of depression of the central nervous system (CNS) they are the most dangerous drugs.

Hallucinogens

These are substance that produces a state of altered perception and other alteration of mood such as illusion hallucination. Examples of these drugs are hysergic acid dethy lamine (LSD).


1.9 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the Effect Of Mkpuru Mmiri Among Secondary School Students In South-East Nigeria, Ebonyi State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the Effect Of Mkpuru Mmiri Among Secondary School Students In South-East Nigeria, Ebonyi State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on examining the rate of mkpuru mmiri usage among the secondary school students; ascertaining the effect of mkpuru mmiri usage on the behavourial disposition of the secondary school students in south-east nigeria and investigate the influence of mkpuru mmiri usage on the academic performance of the secondary school students.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students of selected secondary schools in Ikwo Local Government in Ebonyi state.


5.3 Conclusions

With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;

This study synthesized the available evidence regarding methamphetamine production, use, and associated harm to secondary school students in Eastern Nigeria. The study has shown abundant evidence of how illegal laboratories set up by drug traffickers may be driving the availability of the substance, which encourages consumption.

According to the UNODC (2013, p.19-20), the ‘‘manufacturing of methamphetamine requires no advanced technology. Addicts have been known to synthesize the drug in their own kitchens using common decongestants.

Therefore, the NDLEA should not only focus on uncovering large laboratories in cities but should also focus on rural communities because drug producers may hide smaller laboratories in rural settings to evade detection. To curtail the production and easy availability of methamphetamine from its roots, the NDLEA and other regulatory bodies should focus on eradicating the importation of, and access to the ‘‘precursor chemicals (primarily ephedrine)’’ used in producing the substance (UNODC 2013, 19-20).

While the dissemination of information regarding the effects of the drug is urgently needed, different communities should focus more on reorienting youths to stop those who have not initiated methamphetamine use and encourage cessation amongst current users. It is vital that the government work with all stakeholders to increase public awareness of the dangers of methamphetamine use in Nigeria and develop mechanisms to support addiction treatment and rehabilitation services (Chikezie et al., 2021). Also, it is essential that the use of punitive measures by vigilante groups be discouraged as there is no evidence that such measures are effective. This will also help to prevent the stigma faced by affected individuals who are flogged in public. A South African study found that the factors that encourage the initiation of methamphetamine use include lack of employment opportunities, peer influence, easy accessibility, the popularity of the drug, and coping with stress and trauma (Hobkirk et al., 2016). As stated above, a media report in Nigeria also attributed methamphetamine use to joblessness (Ozah, 2021). Indeed, youth unemployment is high in Nigeria, which may be a reason for the growing drug epidemic. While research into this is warranted, the government should also create jobs for the unemployed youths.

Importantly, drug regulations in Nigeria have often followed the draconian- war on drugs – approach (i.e., arrest and imprisonment), but this has not reduced illicit drug availability and use in the country (Ugwu & Dumbili, 2021). Therefore, the government should not focus on applying such methods in regulating methamphetamine use. An evidence-based, multi- stakeholder (e.g., individuals who use the drug, community leaders, mental healthcare providers, policymakers, etc.) approach should be designed and implemented not just in this region but in the whole country. There is an urgent need to conduct studies in all the states in this region to provide empirical evidence on the availability, sources, prevalence, users’ profile, motivations, and consequences of methamphetamine use. While quantitative studies are necessary to determine the prevalence, qualitative studies that will help map out the real reason or motivations for using methamphetamine and the social practices (e.g., the sources, cultures, etc.) around its use should not be neglected. In the main, youths should be encouraged to channel their energy to other harmless recreational activities.


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