The Use Of Impartial Knowledge Development Structure For Developing Pre-Service Teachers’ Professional Ability

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The Use Of Impartial Knowledge Development Structure For Developing Pre-Service Teachers’ Professional Ability

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Education is the answer to all problems, as it is a requirement for man in today’s competitive world. it is the only thing that fosters healthy habits, morals, and knowledge of issues such as terrorism, corruption, and other issues. Education is a person’s strength as well as a requirement. It is the sole essential means of bringing about the necessary changes and improvements in society. Every person’s life is built on their education. In education, the following are required:

  1. Find out what it can do for you or how it can make your life better.
  2. Look for people who can serve as role models for you.
  3. Put forth your best effort.
  4. Be sociable.
  5. Educate yourself about environmental issues.
  6. With information, you may try flying or other things; not only is it enjoyable and profitable, but you are also learning.
  7. Discover what motivates you.

Education may cure or kill, bind or break apart, elevate or deprave, according to Brembeck (1966). It is the sum of all the processes by which a person develops talents, skills, and other forces of constructive behavior in the society in which he lives, broadly defined (Fafunwa,1982). Education is seen as a tool for integrating individuals into society in order for them to attain self-realization, build national awareness, promote unity, and strive for social, economic, political, scientific, cultural, and technical advancement (Afe, 1995). They will be less likely to find work and provide for their family in the future if they do not have a solid education. With fewer people working and more people in need of assistance, pre- service teachers without quality education will struggle to flourish.

High-quality education may assist to alter this, allowing nations to develop for the greater good of everyone. Quality education contributes to building of strong institutions in the society. An additional year of high education makes nations wealthier, less reliant on foreign help, and better suited to trade in the long term. The following are the top educational priorities: i. Improving educational outcomes. ii. Reaching out to more children, particularly those in vulnerable situations. iii. Keeping females, especially the most disadvantaged, safe.

Primary and lower secondary education get greater attention, although higher education skills and early childhood education are also studied. In its broadest meaning, it is a kind of learning in which a group of people’s knowledge, abilities, values, beliefs, and habits are passed down from generation to generation. Informal transfer of such knowledge from one human being to another may be considered education. Education is often done with the help of others, but learners may also educate themselves (autodidactic learning). Any event that has a formative influence on one’s way of thinking, feeling, or doing may be classified as educational. Preschool, primary school, secondary school, and finally college, university, or apprenticeship are frequent and officially demarcated phases in education. The science and practice of teaching is known as pedagogy. Some countries have acknowledged the need of proper education. Article 13 of the United Nations International Covenant of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, which was signed in 1966, acknowledges everyone’s right to an education. Although education is required in most regions until a certain age, attendance at school is not always required, and a small percentage of parents prefer to home teach their children, often with the use of contemporary electronic instructional technologies (also called e-learning). Education is often seen as a method of overcoming disadvantages, establishing more equality, and gaining riches and prestige for everybody (sergeant, 1999). Education is also often seen as a place where students may grow in accordance with their specific needs and abilities, with the goal of developing each person to their maximum potential.

Learning modalities

There has been much interest in learning modalities and styles over the last two decades. The most commonly employed learning modalities are:


learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned.


learning based on listening to instructions/information.


Learning that is centered on movement, such as doing hands-on work and participating in activities. Musical, interpersonal, verbal logical, and intrapersonal modalities are also often used.

Education is very significant and necessary in a person’s life. There is a need for knowledge in order to live a rich or better life. Education enables a person to have a better life and to be more socially well-adjusted. It contributes to our next feature in a positive way. Education enables a person to achieve their full potential in mind and spirit and provides a wealth of information in all areas. The more information you acquire, the more you will grow. More than 57 million children throughout the globe do not attend elementary school, according to UNESCO. Even after four years of schooling, at least 250 million youngsters are unable to read or count. Every kid has the opportunity to attend school, but it isn’t just about getting them in the door. It’s also about ensuring that they’re well-educated and that what they learn benefits them in the long run.

Types of education

  • Formal education
  • Informal education
  • Non formal education

Formal education happens in a controlled atmosphere with the specific goal of instructing pupils. Formal education is usually provided in a school setting, with a classroom of many pupils studying alongside a certified instructor. The majority of school systems are built on a set of beliefs or ideas that guide all educational decisions. Curriculum, physical classroom architecture, student-teacher interactions, techniques of evaluation, class size, educational activities, and more are examples of such options.

Informal education is when you are not enrolled in a school and do not utilize any other type of instruction. A parent, for example, may educate a youngster how to make a meal. Reading a lot of books from the library may also provide an informal education for teachers.

Adult basic education, adult literacy education, and school equivalency preparation are examples of non-formal education. Adults (or kids who are not in school) may gain literacy, other fundamental skills, or work skills via non-formal education.

Pre-service teachers; – pre-service teachers offer distinct perspectives on political, pedagogical, and discipline-based disputes that are seldom discussed (Welch, 2010). According to research, pre-service teacher education is often the initial stage in a teacher’s professional growth. It provides pre-service teachers with fresh views as well as information and skills preparation (Wilke, 2004). It gives them subject-matter knowledge as well as pedagogical content knowledge, or how to teach. Pre-service instructors must understand how to arrange and deliver material in a manner that is understandable to pupils. They must be capable of making decisions concerning resources, teaching methods, and assessment. Teachers must also have a broad range of skills in the areas of classroom management and discipline. In addition to providing pre-service teachers with knowledge and skills, the teacher as educator must consider the pre-service teachers’ perceptions as they enter and develop during their training (Pajares, 2004).

Pre-service teachers should have the following characteristics:

Understanding the professional and interpersonal attributes of pre-service teachers is helpful in finding important learning opportunities for them. Beginning professional teachers must possess interpersonal and professional traits that include thorough frameworks detailing professional and ethical activities. The most crucial thing for a pre-service teacher to know is what teaching attributes are. Pre-service teachers consider the significance of their personal history, the beliefs they hold, and the role of socialization in their teaching (Clark, 2013). Pre-service teachers are “insiders,” bringing with them familiarities, strong images, and episodes of teacher practice to their preparation. The qualities of a teacher can be divided into three categories: 1. management

2. Instructional strategies.

3. Individual qualities.

In today’s information economy, pre-service teachers with the attributes of reflective and questioning practitioners who can think critically, flexibly, and creatively have become important.

Teacher education is a set of policies and procedures aimed at providing future teachers with the information, attitudes, behaviors, and abilities they’ll need to do their jobs well in the classroom, school, and community. It should ideally be thought of and structured as a continuous flow. Teacher education is often split into the following stages:

  1. Initial teacher education and training: – A pre-service course before beginning as a fully responsible teacher in the classroom.
  2. Induction: The process of giving training and assistance to new teachers or teachers in their first year at a new school.

Teacher education, like education in general, is rapidly evolving in response to national targets imposed on political agendas and student results. There is a need for teacher development, also known as ongoing professional development (CPD), as well as an in-service procedure for practicing instructors. The most suitable name to characterize these actions has been a point of contention for a long time. The phrase ‘teacher training,’ which may imply that the activities entail teaching employees to do relatively normal tasks, seems to be losing favor, at least in the United States ( with its connotation of preparing staff for a role as a reflective practitioner). Teacher education courses may be divided into four primary categories:

  1. Educational foundation knowledge: linked components of educational philosophy
  2. Skills: evaluating students’ learning, assisting with teaching and learning via the use of technology, and assisting students with special needs.
  3. Content: Area and technique knowledge and abilities often involve approaches to teaching and evaluating a particular topic.
  4. Practice: In some cases, but not usually, practice in the classroom or in some other kind of educational practice is monitored and encouraged.

According to the authors, teacher education should be inclusive and take into consideration a variety of backgrounds and characteristics in order for instructors to be sensitive to their students’ needs.

Objective Knowledge Growth Framework (OKGF); – provides pre-service teachers with a framework in which they can conjecture a trial theory when confronted with the same problem in teaching practice, and then improve the trial theory by attempting to refute it, subjecting it to criticism in order to uncover its flaws and inadequacies, and then eliminating the flaws that criticism has revealed. The framework is a useful tool for transporting a large number of concepts. It allows instructors to ask more in-depth inquiries and get answers to crucial educational topics, enriching the inquiry process. OKGF demonstrates a self-directed reflective method that may aid pre-service teachers’ professional growth in coping with the challenges of teaching.

The ability to think critically

The definition of critical thinking is “reasoned reasoning with criticism.” Its specifics differ depending on who defines it. Critical thinking, according to Beyer (1995), entails making clear, reasoned decisions. Ideas should be reasoned and properly thought out/judged throughout the critical thinking process. The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking defines critical thinking as the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication as a guide to belief and action, as defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking.

Problem solving, decision making, met cognition, rationality, rational thinking, reasoning, knowledge, intelligence, and a moral component such as reflective thinking are all included in a definition study by Kompf & Bond (2001). Critical thinkers must consequently have acquired a particular degree of maturity in their growth, as well as a certain attitude and a set of learned abilities.

Critical thinking is important in the application learning process, in which ideas, concepts, and theories are successfully adopted as they become relevant in learners’ lives. At every level of learning, even basic learning, good instructors foster critical thinking (intellectually engaged thinking). The idea is that a teacher who encourages critical thinking in pupils increases their effectiveness by asking questions that inspire critical thinking. The use of critical thinking ideas and principles varies by field (principles like in school). The fundamental ideas are always there, but they are hidden inside subject-specific information. Intellectual engagement is essential for pupils to learn material. All pupils must think for themselves and develop their own knowledge. Good instructors are aware of this and concentrate on questions, readings, and activities that encourage the mind to take ownership of the subject’s core ideas and principles. These qualities are critical criteria for good teacher education, yet psychological methods to teaching and teacher training are not completely taken into account (Woolfolk, 2000). McBer’s (2000) study on teacher effectiveness revealed three primary elements within the control of instructors that have a substantial impact on child growth.

These are the following factors: 1. teaching abilities, 2. professional traits, and 3. classroom atmosphere. Professional traits and teaching abilities are two of the most important aspects for pre-service instructors. These are the skills and knowledge that a pre-service teacher will gain and use on the job. The idea that teaching abilities may be learned was backed up. Recognize that long-term behavior is influenced by the type of professional traits. Successful instructors, according to McBer (2000), come from a variety of backgrounds and make the most of their professional expertise by continuously choosing suitable teaching tactics and displaying attributes that make their teaching effective.

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