A Comparative Analysis Of The Performance Of Male And Female Secondary School Students (A Case Study Of Government Day Secondary School, Arkilla, Sokoto State)

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A Comparative Analysis Of The Performance Of Male And Female Secondary School Students (A Case Study Of Government Day Secondary School, Arkilla, Sokoto State)


Abstract


This study compared the performance of male and female secondary school students in Sokoto State using Government Day Secondary School, Arkilla, Sokoto as a case study. The research centered on finding out the level of performance of secondary school students in Sokoto State and the factors that militate against good performance of secondary school students; as factors such as poverty, inadequate and obsolete infrastructural facilities, indiscipline, and inappropriate curriculum were considered. Three research questions were formulated based on the above. Two questionnaires( for students and teachers) were constructed and administered first to students and teachers of Government Day Secondary School, Runjin Sambo, Sokoto as a pilot study . Afterwards, the same questionnaires were administered to 196 students and 20 teachers of Government Day Secondary School, Arkilla, Sokoto. The data obtained were analysed using frequency and percentage statistical tools. The findings revealed that females have better performance than males at the secondary level. It also showed that the performance of secondary school students in Sokoto State is on the average. In addition, the findings revealed that the factors earlier mentioned militate against good performance of secondary school students. There were discussions on the educational implications and some recommendations were proffered.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Concept of Academic Performance
  • 2.3 Promotional Examinations in Secondary Schools
  • 2.4 Secondary Education in Nigeria’s Context
  • 2.5 Phases of Secondary Education
  • 2.6 Gender and Academic Performance
  • 2.7 Challenges of Good Performance of Secondary School Students

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sample and Sample Technique
  • 3.5 Instruments for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Validity of the Instrument
  • 3.8 Reliability of the Instrument

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis
  • 4.3 Answers to Research Questions
  • 4.4 Summary of Major Findings
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendices

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Over the years, the academic performance of students in secondary schools has been a source of worry to teachers, parents, educational administrators and the society at large. This is more evident in the fact that the input has not always been equivalent to the output. In other words, the knowledge impacted on students by teachers is not always seen reflecting on their performance.

Formal education which is practiced in schools cannot be complete without a certificate being given out. Before any certificate is given to any student, especially at the secondary level, there must have been an examination which would qualify such student for the next class. This kind of examination continues until a student reaches SS3, when he/she is expected to sit for West African School Certificate Examination (WASCE), and National Examination Council Examination (NECO) which are external examinations.

The importance of promotional examinations in secondary schools cannot be overemphasized for several reasons. The foremost reason for any promotional examination is that it remains the only criterion for allowing any student to move to the next class. A student is not expected to move to the next class after having failed the promotional examination, which takes place in third term of any academic session.

Previous studies on the performance of students were almost generalized for both genders. Not much has been done in attempting a comparison of the performance of males and females. This could be due to the fact that several researchers have failed to consider the possibility of having differences in the performance of both genders. If this is the case, it implies that different approaches and effort are required to assist the weaker gender.

The researcher is interested in comparing the performance of male and female secondary school students. This extends to finding out whether there is difference between the performance of males and females at secondary school level.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The main way of showing the academic ability of any student is by having a close check on the student’s performance. Records from previous works show that at certain periods, males have performed better than their female counterparts (Oladeji & Tayo, 2011). At other times, the reverse was the case as it was recorded that females have better performance than their male counterparts ( Khan, 2012).

The problem of this study is to compare and find out whether there is a difference in the performance of male and female secondary school students. This gives rise to a strong quest in finding out which gender truly performs better than the other and of course the possible factors that could contribute to such difference. These factors when known could be harnessed to assist the weaker gender to achieve a commendable performance as well.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The aim of this study is to compare the performance of male and female secondary school students. The study will:

  1. Find out the level of performance secondary school students in Sokoto State.
  2. Find out whether there is a difference in the performance of male and female secondary school students in Sokoto State.
  3. Find out the factors that militate against good performance of secondary school students in Sokoto State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will guide the researcher in her bid to gather data relevant to the topic of the research using Government Day Secondary School, Arkilla, Sokoto as the case study.

  1. What is the level of performance of secondary school students in Sokoto State?
  2. Is there any difference in the performance of male and female secondary school students in Sokoto State?
  3. Are there factors that militate against good performance of secondary school students in Sokoto State?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The finding of this study will improve the standard of education of secondary school students and is of much importance to the following:

1. Teachers

Teachers are trained to be able to pass knowledge to males and females, therefore it is important that they know which gender in particular that requires more academic assistance in order to improve its performance, especially at the secondary level. When teachers are aware of the difference (if any) in the performance of both genders, they can take precautionary measures to avert those factors that are within their own capacity.

2. Students

It will enable secondary school students to know the level of their performance. A high performance should be maintained while a low performance should be improved. In the case of low performance on the side of any of the gender, it would imply that such gender is academically challenged and should therefore strive hard to make changes. This would however, be a source of competition to students in various schools.

3. Parents

Amongst their children who are in secondary schools, they will know which gender that needs more encouragement and motivation to perform better. Parents will equally assist in their own ways to control those factors that militate against good performance of secondary school students, especially those factors that emanate from the family.

4. Educational Administrators

It will enable them to put up better strategies which will be channeled at the academically backward gender in order to improve their performance. They will also be fully involved in tackling those factors that militate against good performance of secondary school students, particularly those factors that concern the management of schools.


1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The performance of students can be accessed through several ways and methods. This study is limited to SS2 students of Government Day Secondary School, Arkilla, Sokoto.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter provides a summary of the study. Based on the findings of the study, conclusions were drawn and recommendations made.


5.2 Summary

This study was done with the aim of comparing the performance of male and female secondary school students in Sokoto State.

  • Chapter one of the work represented the introduction which comprised of background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and delimitation of the study.
  • Chapter two dealt with the review of related literature and is comprised of concept of academic performance, promotional examinations in secondary schools, secondary education in Nigeria’s context, phases of secondary education, gender and academic performance, challenges of good performance of secondary school students.
  • Chapter three of the work dealt with research methodology. It is comprised of research design, population of the study, sample and sample technique, instrument for data collection, method of data collection, validity of the instrument, and reliability of the instrument.
  • Chapter four of the work represented the data presentation and analysis, and constitutes of presentation and analysis of data, answers to research questions, summary of major findings, and discussion of findings.
  • Chapter five comprised of summary, conclusion, and recommendations.

5.3 Conclusion

Females have been found to perform better than males at the secondary level, thus, there is difference in the performance of both genders.


5.4 Recommendations

  1. Government should see to the state of the classrooms and laboratories found in secondary schools to make provision for standard ones and upgrade the already existing ones. They should ensure that adequate and functioning facilities are provided to create a good atmosphere for effective teaching and learning.
  2. They should also review the curriculum used for each subject at intervals and should consider comparing what is adopted in the country with that of other countries which have proved to have a very high standard of education. This will assist to improve the level of education at the secondary level.
  3. Students should begin to see discipline as an important part of being educated. They must not forget that at higher institutions, which they are prepared for, they will be awarded for character and learning. However, the value is as important as the knowledge acquired.
  4. Teachers should study their students to be able to understand them, as this will create enabling environment needed for them to pass knowledge to them. At the secondary level, special attention should be given to the male students to enable them record good performance at all times while the female students should not be neglected in order to improve and maintain their record of good performance.
  5. Parents should fully assume their responsibility of supporting their children in their education, especially financially. They should not forget that students at secondary level are too young to cater for themselves. Not giving them the necessary financial support could be very frustrating to their academic pursuit.

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