Construction Of 500 Liters Water Capacity Tank

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE

Construction Of 500 Liters Water Capacity Tank


Abstract


The purpose of this study is to investigate the water retaining behaviour of lightweight aggregate concrete and the effect of polypropylene fibres upon its addition in Lightweight Aggregate Concrete (LWAC) mix in the overhead water tank of 1000 gallons. The material was fabricated and tested under different conditions. The observations concluded that the behaviour of this material is very good in water retention and temperature control. Moreover, the unit weight of LWAC reduced to 1890 kg/m3 which is 21% less than NWAC which is of paramount importance. Furthermore, compressive strength and load bearing capacity of FLWAC was not compromised as evaluated during this academic study. It is observed that strength has increased by addition of polypropylene fibres and no leakage was there, even after the testing of large period no seepage has been seen, whereas the cost of the tank prepared by FLWAC Tank was found to be 18% to 20% less than the cost of NWAC. Thus it can be concluded that LWAC along with polypropylene fibres yielded impressive results and finally, it is concluded that this material can be used for future work such as construction of prefabricated U channels for storm water drainage in katchiabadies etc.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 General

Aggregate is a composite term for the mineral materials such as sand, gravel, slag and crushed stone which are used with a binding medium such as (water, portland cement, bitumen, lime, etc.) and it forms compound materials such as (asphalt concrete and portland cement concrete). These aggregates can be used for base and sub-base courses for both flexible and rigid-pavements. They can either be natural or manufactured. Naturally they are generally extracted from larger rock formations through an open excavation (quarry).This extracted rock is then typically reduced to usable sizes by mechanical crushing. While the manufactured aggregate is often the byproduct of other manufacturing industries. [1]

Aggregates are most important component of concrete. To make a good concrete mix, aggregates should be clean, hard, strong particles (free of absorbed chemicals or coatings of clay) and other fine materials that could cause the failure of concrete. Aggregates, which account for 60 to 75 percent of the total volume of concrete, are divided into two distinct categories- fine and coarse. Fine aggregates are generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most particles passing through a 3/8-inch sieve. Coarse aggregates are the particles of size greater than 0.19 inch but generally range between 3/8 and 1.5 inches in diameter. The gravels constitute the majority of coarse aggregate used in concrete with crushed stone making up most of the remainder. [2]

Aggregates strongly effect the properties of concrete freshly mixed and hardened properties, mixture proportions, and economy. The selection of aggregates is very important process. There are some variations in aggregate properties are expected, but the characteristics that are considered include: grading, durability, surface texture and particle shape, abrasion and skid resistance, unit weights and voids, absorption and surface moisture. On the basis of unit weight and specific gravity aggregates are subdivided.

There are two main types of aggregates.

  1. Normal Weight Aggregates Concrete (NWAC)
  2. Light Weight Aggregate Concrete (LWAC)

Normal weight aggregates are used for most concretes and they are naturally occurring gravels from land or marine sources, or crushed rocks e.g. limestone, granite or basalt. Lightweight aggregates are artificially produced aggregates of low density, e.g. expanded clay or shale or natural lightweight materials such as pumice. [3] BS3797 cites that light weight aggregates have density less than 960 kg/m3 for coarse aggregate and 1200 kg/m3 for fine aggregates. It is typically ranges 25% to 35% lighter than the normal weight aggregate. Light weight concrete offers design flexibility and substantial cost savings by providing less dead load, good seismic structural response, longer spans such as long-span bridges, low heat conductivity, smaller size structural members, decreased storey height, less steel reinforcement, and lower foundations costs when applied to structures and highrise buildings.[4] The lightweight concrete precast elements offer reduced transportation and placement costs.

The concrete in which common ingredients such as aggregate, water, cement are used is known as normal weight concrete. It has a setting time of ranges 30 – 90 minutes depending upon the moisture in the atmosphere, fineness of cement etc. The development of the strength starts after 7 days the common strength values is 1450 psi to 5800 psi. At about 28 days it attains 75 – 80% of the total strength. When it completes 90 days 95% of the strength is almost achieved. The concrete which has substantially lower mass per unit volume then the concrete made of ordinary ingredients is called lightweight concrete. Aggregates used are lighter in weight.Density of light weight concrete is 240 kg/m³ (15pcf) -1850 kg/m³ (115 pcf).Strength of light weight concrete blocks varies from 1000 psi -5800 psi. Sometimes Air Entrained Admixtures are also added to it giving resistance to freezing and thawing along with strength. [5]

Structural lightweight aggregate concrete is versatile material in modern construction. Its various applications include multistorey building frames and floors, bridges, and prestressed or precast elements. Lightweight-aggregate concrete has a substantially lower bulk density than that of concrete made with gravel or crushed stone. The lower bulk density results from using lightweight aggregates, either natural or manufactured artificially. Many types of aggregates are classified as lightweight and are used to produce concretes with a wide range of densities and strengths.

These include low density concretes, moderate strength concretes, and structural lightweight concretes, each of which is discussed in more detail in the following, along with the types of aggregates normally used in its production.

It is required to enhance the mechanical properties of concrete. For this purpose fibrous concrete is brought into existence. Various types of fibres such as steel, glass and organic polymers are used in fibrous concrete. The addition of fibers to concrete helps in minimizing plastic shrinkage and cracks which helps in enhancing the durability of the structure. The reduction in surface and internal cracks prevents the entry of moisture to the material and other harmful chemicals which can have a severe effect on concrete. Fibers control the formation of micro-cracks the permeability of concrete is reduced; this property is of primary importance for the manufacturing of waterproof concrete. [6]

Among the organic polymers is Polypropylene Fibre which is chemically inert, which does not rust, corrode or rot, and nor does it absorb water. It has excellent thermal insulating properties, light weight and rigid, high tensile strength, long life span and excellent abrasion resistance. Handling, relocation and installation of polypropylene equipment is easier because polypropylene is lighter than most other materials used in fabrication. Based on the fore mentioned advantages, polypropylene fibre can be used to enhance the properties of concrete.

Fiber reinforced concrete is the composite material containing fibers in the cement matrix in an orderly manner or randomly distributed manner. The properties would obviously depend upon the efficient transfer of stress between matrix and the fibers.The various factors that effect the properties of fiber reinforced concrete are relative fiber matrix stiffness, volume of fibers, aspect ratio of the fiber, orientation of fibers, workability and compaction of concrete, size of coarse aggregate and mixing of the fibers.

The fibres that are added to concrete mix is measured as a percentage of the total volume of the concrete and fibres termed volume fraction. It typically ranges from 0.1 to 3%. Aspect ratio is calculated by dividing fibre length by its diameter. Fibres with a non-circular cross section use an equivalent diameter for the calculation of aspect ratio. Increase in the aspect ratio of the fibre usually segments the flexural strength and toughness of the matrix. The fibres which are too long create workability problems. There are some recent research indicated that using fibres in concrete has limited effect on the impact resistance of concrete materials. This finding is very significant. The results also pointed out that the micro-fibres are better in impact resistance compared with the longer fibres.


1.2 Objective

The objective of this study is to explore the possible application of lightweight aggregate concrete in water retaining structures precisely water tanks and to observe the improvement in the properties of lightweight aggregate concrete upon the addition of polypropylene fibre along with the cost estimation of the project.


1.3 Scope

This project incorporates the production of light weight aggregate from grey shale by bloating method in Rotary kiln. The water retention, temperature control, unit weight reduction and water absorption behaviour of Reinforced LWAC and the effect of Polypropylene fibre on it. Also, material required in FLWAC Tank is estimated, as well as comparative study of the cost requisite for the construction of RCC OHWT based on the steel reduction in FLWAC is assimilated in this project. Beyond these limitations everything will be considered out of this project.


1.4 Methodology

  1. Design of the structure.
  2. Selecting an appropriate method for the material production.
  3. Calculating the targeted compressive strength of this material.
  4. Analyzing the impact of water on this material in different conditions.
  5. Construction of the overhead water tank.
  6. Testing and monitoring of the project.

All these steps have been carried out in this presented report. Based on the information gathered from these steps the result is concluded in the report.


1.5 Content of the Report

Literature review concludes the material that is gained from the research papers and journals.

According to ASTM-C330 Lightweight Aggregate Production describes the production process of lightweight aggregate in detail.

Steel fixing, shuttering, concreting, curing and plastering of tank also defines in detail.

Testing procedure of cylinders and cubes with different instruments. The procedures are explained in detail, with reference to the codes and standards followed.

The chapter of comparison includes the weight of constructed tank and comparing with conventional normal weight concrete. Temperature inside and outside of your tank and the tank used for cylinder curing in front of material testing lab, at the same time. `

In the end, conclusions and recommendations of the report incorporates the project, gives the end results of the study.

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Chapter Six


Conclusions and Recommendations

6.1 Conclusions

In this study it was observed that the unit weight of lightweight aggregate concrete was 21% less than normal weight aggregate concrete which in turn resulted in 21 % reduction in the weight of structure. This reduction in the dead load can lead to the potential savings in reinforcement, if we enlarge the scale and usage of the light weight aggregate concrete. Reduction in the steel is itself cost effective that may also overcome the extra expenditure of the usage of lightweight aggregate and the polypropylene fibres.

It was also observed that no leakage and seepage appeared in the FLWAC tank , suggesting an effective role of polypropylene fibres in controlling the temperature, weight of structure, etc. It may be concluded that the usage of the polypropylene fibres provided help in curing and heat insulation as the behaviour of the structure was a little like fibrous. The additional cost that will be required for the polypropylene fibres may be covered in the cost that shall be saved by the usage of LWAC as a result of the reduction in the dead load.

The co-efficient of thermal expansion is found to be very less than the normal weight concrete. This is huge difference between these two type of concrete because due the expansion cracks can be produced in the concrete. Light weight concrete undergoes less expansion due to the polypropylene fibers which is remarkable result of the usage of polypropylene fibres in the LWAC.

The steel utilized is almost 160 kg for the construction of 1000 gallons OHWT by use of light weight aggregate concrete, but for the same capacity tank by using normal weight aggregate concrete needs 200-250 kg of steel. So it clearly shows that how better is the light weight concrete as compared to the NWAC when it comes to the cost.
In case with normal weight concrete based on the absorption test, lightweight aggregate generally absorbs from 5 to 20 percent by weight of dry aggregate, depending on the pore structure of the aggregate. The important difference is that the moisture content in LWA aggregate is largely absorbed into the interior of the particles where as in NWA it is largely surface moisture.

Light weight aggregate is much cost effective as compared to normal weight concrete because the self-weight of the structure is reduced due to the light weight material. There is also 21% reduction in steel and the light weight aggregate is also very cheap material. So in this way there is 18 to 20 % reduction in the cost of tank as compared to normal weight concrete. The total cost of OHWT of 1000 gallons by using light weight aggregate is almost 40,000 Rs but for the normal weight concrete it approaches to the price of 50,000 Rs. In this way LWAC is better option over NWAC when it came to the overall cost of the project.


6.2 Recommendations

For the proper utilization of FLWAC, in construction industry, following recommendations are proposed:

  1. Production of light weight aggregate should be maximized.
  2. It is observed that production of lightweight aggregate is not on a remarkable span in Pakistan. There are only few institutes or organizations that manufacture lightweight aggregate for the purpose of study. The production of lightweight aggregate can be brought to enormous scale by publishing and bringing the results of the study in knowledge of the students, contractors, builders and the manufacturers like Lucky Cement Factory Ltd. Although a heavy investment is required for the production of the lightweight aggregate on a large scale, but the demand of the contractors and builders may encourage the manufacturers to invest in lightweight aggregate. The interest of the builders and contractors can be increased if we a cost and strength analysis is presented before them. Moreover, universities can start from their own side by building any small structure using lightweight aggregate, in order to present the efficiency of the lightweight aggregate.
  3. Proto type structure model should be tested under different load conditions.
  4. We need to encourage the institutions and universities to extend the span of the studies carried out for the lightweight aggregate. The universities should make proto type structures and test these structures under seismic loading and the parameters should be compared with that obtained from the normal weight aggregate concrete.
  5. Certain other parameters such as impact resistance and insulation should also be assessed.
  6. The other parameters that need to be brought under the study, aside from water retaining behavior, shear and flexure are impact resistance and the insulation. The span of the tests should be extended to bring these studies in the circle, and the results need to be compared with the results obtained from normal weight aggregate.
  7. An overall comparative cost analysis should be carried out.
  8. The cost holds the equivalent importance that of the strength. The institutes and universities need to analyze the economy of the lightweight aggregate in comparison with the normal weight aggregate using the statistical tools and business approach. The studies for lightweight aggregate need to be extended to the economical and statistical basis, and should not be limited to structural basis only.
  9. It is recommended that this material can be used for future work such as construction of prefabricated U channels for storm water drainage in katchiabadies etc.

6.3 Limitations

The study was done under some limitations, mentioned below:

  1. The compressive strength on all the concretes namely LWAC, and FLWAC was to be maintained same at 21 MPa.
  2. The compressive strength in different concretes was to be achieved by varying mix design.
  3. The results and conclusion of the study are only to be related with the usage of LWAC in structural members, particularly beam.
  4. The OHWT dimensions were limited to 7’×7’×5.5’ in the study.
  5. The mix ratio of 1:3:2.5 is used in the entire project.
  6. The LWA was prepared from the grey shale obtained from the Makran Coast.
  7. The LWA was prepared as per ASTM-C33, by using rotary kiln.
  8. The water loading was to be maintained at 5’ with reference to the deflection that was to be maintained as 1mm/min.
  9. The tank is tested by filling the water at different levels and all the parameters were recorded under the same type of loading.
  10. The structure was to be cured for 28 days by wet covering and spraying the water from pipe at the walls and the bottom slab.
  11. The cement used for the entire construction was Lucky Cement, satisfying ASTMC150.
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