Impact Of Banditry On Food Production In Nigeria (A Study Of Gwagwa Area In Abuja)

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Science Students

Impact Of Banditry On Food Production In Nigeria (A Study Of Gwagwa Area In Abuja)


Abstract


This study was carried out on the impact of banditry on food production in Nigeria using gwagwa area in abuja as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of resident of Gwagwa area of Abuja. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The hypotheses was tested using Chi-square Statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent of prevalence of banditry activities in Gwagwa area in Abuja is high. The study also revealed that the causes of banditry in Gwagwa area in Abuja includes: unemployment and poverty, lack of education, poor socio-amenities, huge gaps between the government and the people, biasedly fighting against corruption, Insecurity. Furthermore, banditry have hampered the processes of food production in Nigeria. And banditry have contributed to food scarcity in Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that non-governmental organisations should also be part of the war on herdsmen, banditry and kidnapping in Nigeria and neighbouring states, through awareness creation programmes.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

A bandit is a robber or outlaw belonging to a gang, who uses weapons to steal or rob from the people and typically operating in an isolated or lawless area of a country. Banditry is a term used to refer to acts of robbery and violence in areas where the rule of law has broken down (Collins, 2000). Banditry consists of the organization of armed bands for the purpose of attacking state or social institutions or enterprises or individual persons. Participation in such bands and in the attacks committed by them is equally regarded as banditry (Collins, 2000).

Historically, banditry has existed and operated in different parts of the world since the 19th century when bandits riding mostly on horse backs move from their hideouts to attack villages and then retreated back to their hideouts. In Europe, bandits have existed in mainly mountainous areas of Italy, Spain, Greece and Turkey (Cassia, 1993). In Asia, bandits have existed in several countries such as Iran, Philippines and India (Bankoff, 1998). In India, bandits are called Daku in Hindi Language which the British colonialist coined as dacoity during the colonial period. Thus dacoity has become a term for banditry in the Indian subcontinent where bandits have operated for many years in north and north central India. One of the notable dacoits was Gabbar Singh who inspired the famous 1975 Bollywood film Sholay (Flames) based on his life. Therefore, banditry has a rich and lucrative history throughout south Asia and despite continued anti banditry efforts, the problem of banditry persists in India presently (Dmella, 2018).

Banditry is another security challenge in Africa where bandits have continued to ravage the horn of Africa, East and Central Africa and the trans-Saharan trade routes from Niger Republic all the way to Libya (Aregbesola, 2020). Banditry has existed in parts of Chad and around Lake Chad and they also have significant presence in parts of Southern Africa (Aregbesola, 2020). In West Africa, the prevalence and severity of banditry has contributed to the rising increase in regional insecurity with a potential threat to regional integration of the sub- region (Abdullahi, 2019). Reports have shown that some of the bandits from some countries of the West African sub-region such as Niger Republic and Mali were invited to carry out large scale attacks in some countries of the sub-region. They moved through the porous West African borders with their arms to assist their fellow bandits in carrying out large scale or reprisal attacks.

In Nigeria, banditry came as a result of nearly four decades of unresolved conflicts between settled cultivators and nomadic herding communities that wander on the high plains of northern Nigeria particularly the North West geo-political zone in states such as Zamfara. Banditry in Zamfara State started since around 2009 and increased in 2011 especially after the general elections (Anka, 2017). In fact, Zamfara state has been the epicenter of banditry in Nigeria, where most of the bandit’s leaders were based and from Zamfara state forests they would move riding on motor cycles to other areas such as Gwagwa area, to operate and return to their forest dens (Farouq and Chukwu, 2020).

Therefore by the year 2010, banditry had started in Gwagwa area and in other parts of katsina state primarily in the seven Local Government Areas (LGAs) that shared boundary with Zamfara state namely Jibia, Batsari, Safana, Danmusa, Kankara, Faskari and Sabua.

Since banditry involved acts of robbery and violence on the people particularly rural dwellers who mainly engaged in farming, cattle rearing and other food production activities it is bound to have impacts on food security. Food security according to the World Food Summit 1996 “exists when all people at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active healthy life” (FAO, 2008). The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, 2010) simply defines food security as the availability of food in terms of production, distribution and consumption.

Any form of violence that leads to insecurity in rural areas where majority of the people are farmers is bound to affect food security anywhere in the world. The United Nations in September 2020 observed that attacks by Al- Shabaab insurgent group will deepen food insecurity into the year 2021 in Mozambique (Channels, 2020). In Nigeria, the Federal Government has realized that banditry has posed a serious threat to farming communities in the northern parts of the country. Therefore in April 2017, the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development in conjunction with the Minister of Interior initiated the formation of a special unit of Agro- Rangers Corps to protect farmers and farming investments throughout the country (The Sun, 2017). The use of the Agro-Rangers was expected to forestall attacks on farmlands and boost farmer’s confidence to work on their farms without fear of attacks, thereby guaranteeing the Federal Government avowed food security plans (NSCDC, 2020). On the occasion of the June 12 Democracy Day Speech President Buhari announced the deployment of 5,000 Agro-Rangers to offer protection to farmers and farming investments across the country (Oyeleke, 2020). In December, 2018 the Minister of Interior observed that the persistent attacks on residents of Zamfara state by bandits would affect food security in Nigeria as a whole during an on- the-spot assessment of the activities of bandits in the state (Agency Report, 2018).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Crime thrives in contexts where there’s little deterrence. In most of Nigeria’s rural communities, there are many opportunities for criminal activity. For one thing, some of these communities are located in remote areas where there is little or no government presence. More importantly, households and schools are in some cases separated by and interspersed with forest areas. This renders them vulnerable to banditry. This situation is made worse by the absence of effective community policing mechanisms capable of addressing the hinterlands’ peculiar security challenges.

In the month of May 2020, some farmers in Gwagwa area state warned that the resurgence of nefarious activities of bandits if not properly tackled by security agencies and state government, would create unprecedented food crisis in the state (Sardauna, 2020). The President of All Farmers Association of Nigeria (AFAN), on the occasion of World Food Day 16th October, identified the present challenges of attaining food security which included corona virus pandemic, occurrence of flood disasters, drought in some parts, and insecurity especially banditry in the North West (FRCN, 2020).


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine the impact of banditry on food production in Nigeria (a study of Gwagwa area in Abuja).

Other objectives of the study are:

  1. To determine the extent of prevalence of banditry activities in Gwagwa area in Abuja.
  2. To find out the causes of banditry in Gwagwa area in Abuja.
  3. Find out whether banditry have hampered the processes of food production in Nigeria.
  4. To determine whether banditry have contributed to food scarcity in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will validate this study:

  1. To what extent is the prevalence of banditry activities in Gwagwa area of Abuja?
  2. What are the causes of banditry in Nigeria?
  3. Has banditry hampered the processes of food production in Gwagwa area of Abuja?
  4. Has banditry contributed to food scarcity in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

H0: The impact of banditry on food production in Nigeria is low.

Ha: The impact of banditry on food production in Nigeria is high.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will enable Public security agents in Nigeria on the need to be exposed (by way of periodic training) to the globally tenable best practices and know-how of counter-banditry to boost their operational efficiency in combating violent crimes in general and armed robbery in particular.it will heighten the awareness of government on the need to come up with credible and implementable policies to curb the incessant attacks on common man and improve their livelihood. It will hamper the criminal justice system of Nigeria on the need to be re-positioned and revitalized through progressive reforms to enable it acquire the integrity and competences to sanction crime aright.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on impact of banditry on food production in Nigeria. The study will be carried out in Gwagwa area of Abuja, where the respondents will be obtained.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The following posed to be a constraint to the study

Financial Constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time Constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

However in the midst above mentioned limitation the researcher devotedly ensured that the purpose of the study was actualized.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Banditry:

Banditry is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the threat or use of violence. A person who engages in banditry is known as a bandit and primarily commits crimes such as extortion, robbery, and murder, either as an individual or in groups.

Food Production:

Food production refers to the process of conversion of raw materials into finished food products.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of banditry on food production in Nigeria using Gwagwa area in Abuja as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the impact of banditry on food production in Nigeria using Gwagwa area in Abuja as a case study. The study is was specifically set to determine the extent of prevalence of banditry activities in Gwagwa area in Abuja, find out the causes of banditry in Gwagwa area in Abuja, find out whether banditry have hampered the processes of food production in Nigeria, and determine whether banditry have contributed to food scarcity in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent areresident of Gwagwa area of Abuja.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The extent of prevalence of banditry activities in Gwagwa area in Abuja is high.
  2. The causes of banditry in Gwagwa area in Abuja includes: unemployment and poverty, lack of education, poor socio-amenities, huge gaps between the government and the people, biasedly fighting against corruption, Insecurity.
  3. Banditry have hampered the processes of food production in Nigeria.
  4. Banditry have contributed to food scarcity in Nigeria.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Use of and development of grazing reserves to target pastoralists with large stocks where skills for pasture production, large milk production, etc can be promoted.
  2. The government should identify problems causing insecurity, banditry and insurgency in the country and tackle them.
  3. Foreign governments should also participate in the war on banditry and kidnapping in Nigeria because the activity is a transnational crime usually involving movement out of the country.
  4. Non-governmental organisations should also be part of the war on herdsmen, banditry and kidnapping in Nigeria and neighbouring states, through awareness creation programmes.

How To Get The Complete Material For Impact Of Banditry On Food Production In Nigeria (A Study Of Gwagwa Area In Abuja)


Project Material Download

5,000 - 5000

The Complete Material will be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make a Mobile Transfer or POS Payment of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Access Bank PlcAcc No: 0811003731
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($20)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details
  2. Email Address 
  3. Impact Of Banditry On Food Production In Nigeria (A Study Of Gwagwa Area In Abuja)

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To Your Email Address After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Disclaimer


This research material “Impact Of Banditry On Food Production In Nigeria (A Study Of Gwagwa Area In Abuja)” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Impact Of Banditry On Food Production In Nigeria (A Study Of Gwagwa Area In Abuja)” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.