Comparative Investigation Of The Germination And Early Growth Of Two Agroforestry Tree Species In The Nursery

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE

Comparative Investigation Of The Germination And Early Growth Of Two Agroforestry Tree Species In The Nursery


Abstract


Seedling growth of two multipurpose tree species (MPTs) were grown to evaluate comparative seedling growth in four different types of container up to six months in nursery condition at Department of Agroforestry and Environment, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria. The MPTs were Annona recticulata, and Annona muricata, and containers were gunny bag, poly bag, earthen pot and bare rooted. The first two species were leguminous and the rest two were non-leguminous. Seedling height (cm), collar diameter (mm), leaf number and fresh and dry weight (gm) of root, stem and leaf was measured for the growth performance study. Leguminous species showed better growth performance than the non-legume species. Annona recticulata performed better than the other three species in terms of plant height, collar diameter, and biomass production. Statistically significant and maximum leaf number was recorded in Annona recticulata, followed by Annona muricata. Gunny bag produced maximum biomass for all the studied tree species.

 


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives Of Study
  • 1.4 Scope Of Study
  • 1.5 Justification Of Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Tree Planting And Biodiversity Conservation
  • 2.3 Tree Diversification And Germplasm
  • 2.4 Tree Germplasm Availability
  • 2.5 Tree Diversification And Rural Livelihoods
  • 2.6 Multipurpose Trees And Tree Diversification
  • 2.7 Prospects For Cultivating And Domesticating Indigenous Tree Species
  • 2.8 Loss Of Indigenous Tree Species
  • 2.9 Factors Influencing Tree Planting At Farm Level

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Materials
  • 3.2 Sample Preparation
  • 3.3 Data Procedures
  • 3.4 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary And Conclusion

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

A forest is a large wooded area having a thick growth of trees and other plants. The importance of trees and shrubs to man, animal, and the environment are numerous. Trees and other plants of the forest act as filter which cleans the air we breath. Clean air is of great value to human health (Chacolo and Pineae, 1991; Smith, 1978; Desanto, 1976).

The tern phytoremediation is a word for the absorption of dangerous chemicals and other pollutants that are harmful into less harmful forms, Pollard (1977). They also further sewage farm chemicals reduce road side spills and clean water runoff into streams. Noise pollution is known to be controlled by trees, Chacolo and Pineace (1991). Apart from facilitating climatic modification Muller (1998), trees are source of fuel wood, cline Cole (1990) and shepherd (1990) land scape enhancement, Fortnnann and Riddell (1985) one can derive useful substances from trees such as spice, fibre, medicine which are non-timber species Smith (1992). Trees are sources of timber. They facilitate to some extent food security and improved nutrition, Thannan (1987). The intensity of solar energy radiation that reaches our vicinity is controlled to some extent by trees through solar energy blocking offered by these trees Muller (1988). Apart from all of these trees are also known to produce oxygen, enable wind break, carbon (iv) oxide-sequestering and Green house effect, Go Green (2009).

Agroforestry, compound tree planting protection plantation, aesthetic plantation, production plantation are practices that enhance the raising of tree crops by various people and communities. Agroforestry is a system of land use in which harvestable trees and crops are grown among or around crops or on pasture land as means of preserving or enhancing the productivity of the land. it is defined as a method of farming integrating herbaceous and tree crop.

The system has advantage over Conventional Agriculture and Forest production method. In many ways, for example, it offers increased productivity economic benefits, social outcomes in the ecological goods and services provided.
Biodiversity in Agroforestry Systems is typically higher than conventional Agricultural Systems. With two or more interacting species in a given land area it creates a more complex habitat that can support a wider variety of birds insects and other animals.

The potential Impact of Agroforestry centres on the following:

Reducing poverty through increased production of wood and other tree products for home consumption and sale, Thannan (1987). Agroforestry contributes to Food Security by restoring the soil fertility for food crops. It provides cleaner water through reduced nutrient and soil runoff in water bodies Go Green (2009). It counters global warming and the risk of hunger by increasing the number of subsequent production of fruits nuts and edible oils, Thannan (1987).

It reduces deforestation and pressure on wood lands through provision of farm grown fuel wood, thus becoming a source of fuel wood, Cline Cole (1990) and Sherperd (1990). It enables the reduction in need for useful biochemical substances such as alkalliods and tannins, Smith (1992).

Through Agroforestry more diverse farm outputs improved nutrition is possible Thannan (1987). In situation where people have limited access to good health facilities, it produces growing space for medicinal plants.

Physical support system is another system of agroforestry in this grapes and other like crops are raised along side with pruned trees. Variation of the physical support system depends upon the type of vine. These trees enable wind break.

Features of Agroforestry tree varies in respect to the kind of Agroforestry system practiced. In alley cropping the desirable features are ease of establishment, fast growing; good sprouting, and ability to fix nitrogen. Heavy palatable foliage, deep rooted system, ease of propagation, adaptability to close spacing. For home gardens the species involved have the following features like the desired amount of shade, deep rooting. Features of species used in live fencing include tolerance of minor injuries, fast growing, compatibility with animal and perennial crops, provides fodder, fire resistant, posses thorns and can be propagated vegetatively. for wind break the desired features of the species are wind resistant, deep spreading root system, small open crown, ease to propagate, species used in improved fallow system share some features such as high nitrogen content in tissue. Fast biomass production, trees and raising of livestock system of Agroforestry posses the following features such as high protein, high nutrient content, palatability, free of toxic substances and sprout well, Nair (1989).


1.2 Statement Of Problem

The raising of treecrops are of multi-purpose function one of which is the eradification of desert encroachment which is already prevailing in the North so the demand for wood and wood product is increasing due to increasing population, Amebo (2004). The raising of trees can be carried out in various ways in which Agroforestry, compound tree planting and many others are aspect of it. The use of any tree in agroforestry or compound tree planting would depend on some qualities particularly tree size and ease of handling. Germination and early growth are aspects of seed handling that can encourage or discourage a tree planter. Hence, the need for this study.


1.3 Objectives Of Study

The aim of this study is to carry out a comparative investigation of the germination and early growth of two agroforestry tree species in the nursery. This study has the following objectives:

  1. To investigate the germinative capacity of two Agroforestry species Annona recticulata and Annona muricata.
  2. To study early growth development of the two species in the Nursery.

1.4 Scope Of Study

The study revolves around the germination and growth of Annona recticulata and Annona muricata in the Nursery.


1.5 Justification Of Study

Annona recticulata and Annona muricata are trees that have numerous socio-economic and environmental benefits to man, being small in size and amenable to compound and agroforestry planting, it is worthwhile to examine them in terms of Silivicultural requirement with a view of promoting their planting and use by more people.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary And Conclusion

5.1 Summary

The initial growth performance is very important for any MPTs as it gives an idea or reflects about the performance in field. In the study Annona recticulata performed better all the studied parameters accept leaf number. In terms of plant height performance the four studied MPTs can be ranked as Annona recticulata > Annona muricata and growth containers as bare rooted > gunny bag > poly bag > earthen pot. For collar diameter the same trend was followed. Annona recticulata showed maximum leaf number for all the sampling dates followed by Annona muricata. Gunny bag found better up to 3 months but after 6 months both bare rooted and poly bag performed better. However earthen pots performance was poor for all the species. Up to three months, bare rooted seedling produced maximum leaf number but the six months data showed that gunny bag produced maximum and statistically different leaf number than the others. Annona recticulata produced maximum biomass followed by Annona muricata.


5.2 Conclusion

In the study after bare rooted, gunny bag performed better over poly bag and earthen pot as it is easily decomposable and adds nutrients, organic matters to the soil. Moreover gunny bag is environmentally friendly and completely organic while comparing with poly bag. So for local plantation program seedling can be grown in gunny bag.


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