Agriculture And Economic Development Problem And Prospect

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE

Agriculture And Economic Development Problem And Prospect


Abstract


This study is on agriculture and economic development problems and prospects. The total population for the study is 200 staff of ministry of agriculture Edo state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made agriculturists, agronomists, administrative staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Agriculture sectors is one of the earliest sector, it starts when man has to survive as gathering of fruits and nuts. He has depended on the natural burning of the forest and water body. It is only recently as perhaps ten thousand year ago that man began to adopt and attempt to domesticate animals and plants. He began the transition from primitive hunting and gathering and the practices of animal’s husbandry and tilling of the land. At first, he did this unconsciously but as time passed he consciously selected the better forms of animals and pants for breeding purposes. This process has to continue to accelerate to modern times and has gone so far that the common agricultural crops and animals of today are very unlike the wide forms. In modern times men consciously selected both plants and animals according to the well-established principles of genetic inheritance and breeds form more closely adapted to his requirement. Agriculture is a sinequanon to any economy for an economy to develop well the agricultural sector must be given a dynamic role to play. Inspite of the important role of agriculture in Edo state, the people or citizen have vague idea that agriculture is concerned only with soil cultivation. But a more comprehensive definition according to Olyyemi (1975) defined agriculture as the cultivation of soil and the feeding and management of crops and livestock for the use of man, the disposal of those products for marketing. In some nation, agriculture sector is give priority because it provide raw material for the industrial sector, food and meat for the development of man, food and shelter are basic necessities for human consumption are both originated from farming activities. Whether one work in secondary or territory sector, without agriculture, the final output which we rely upon cannot be achieved. As regard to the important, agriculture provides employment opportunities to the labour for through direct employment into agricultural and interrelated industrial and manufacturing sectors. For this, sector contribute efficiently, there is need for better decision making and implementation, good management and adoption of cost production techniques distributive channels, marketing, research for better pricing system, recognition of the availability of land including soil preservation and provision of storage facilities. Farm out become low because the system of farming still involves the use of simpler farm tools like cutlass and hoe on proper knowledge on how to apply chemicals to those crops. Capital investment is small and modern input like fertilizer and improved seeds are still not widely use by most of the farmers. As developed and industrialized countries like United State of America, Germany, Canada, etc agriculture still ranks high in their government privities. This is so because it provides them on alternative sources of foreign reserve, as well as internal, direct and indirect economic benefits derived from balanced terms of trades with other countries. Be that at it may, poor performance of the agriculture sector to provide adequate food for the growing population declining productivity of most exported crops which has contributed to substantial reduction in foreign exchange earnings and declining condition of agricultural products to gross domestic products in the real terms.


1.2 Statement of the Problems

Due to the fact that agriculture play an important role in the development of the economy of Edo state, some problem are still associated with the production of agriculture. The attitude of the farmer towards production of crops, little did they know about new technology of modern farming. Most farmers are still stick to their old ways as a result of the use of crude equipment in farming such as cutlass, thereby reducing the yield in production. Cultural consciousness had made some farmers to willing object to the use of farming technique because of some cultural belief that if the modern system is applied, the crops will not do well or the gods of the land will not be happy with them as such they restrict the production to a particular location, no need for expansion, this will lead to low productivity. The fact that most our farmers are low level income earners, they cannot invest on the purchase of machine that could have boost their production. Also most people are of the mind that agriculture is simply farming as a matter of fact, it’s meant for the low level people, this has made many of them deviate from the farming practice.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objectives of the study are:

  1. To identify the problems facing agriculture production in Edo state.
  2. To examine the role of agriculture in economic development of Edo state.
  3. To suggest possible solution to the problems that have emanated.
  4. To make appropriate recommendations to the farmers or modern use of farming techniques.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

  1. H0: there are no problems facing agriculture production in Edo state
    H1: there are problems facing agriculture production in Edo state
  2. H02: there is no role of agriculture in economic development of Edo state.
    H2: there is role of agriculture in economic development of Edo state.

1.5 Significance of the Study

The role of agriculture is a sinequanon in the economic development of Edo state, as a matter of fact; the importance of agriculture will be enumerated.Agriculture provides the basic for requirement of the population. Man needs some essential nutrient for nourishment of the body growth. It also supplies many of the raw materials for industry for the manufacture of goods for the use of man.Agriculture provides income and employment for the majority of the population. Around ninety percent (90%) of the population of West African employed in agriculture in Nigeria, seventy (70) percent of the figure are slightly below the average for the whole west Africa but even in the country, the great majority of the population depend on agriculture for income and employment.Agriculture exports are of great importance in earning foreign exchange of the country that buy these product pay for them in their own currency.This money got as a result of exchange of agricultural goods can be used to purchase some vital goods like capital goods which help in the economic development of the nation or state.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study covers the problems of agriculture in the economic development of Edo state and emphasis will be laid on some specific area of production, such as crops. Like cassava, maize, etc also animal productions like chickens, goat to mention but a few. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) Availability of Research Material:

The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) Time:

The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational Privacy:

Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities


1.7 Definition of Terms

Agriculture:

This may be defined as the cultivation of land and the production of food, plants and animals for man’s use and survival.

Economic Development:

Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people. The term has been used frequently by economists, politicians, and others in the 20th and 21st centuries

Problem:

A matter or situation regarded as unwelcome or harmful and needing to be dealt with and overcome

Prospect:

(sometimes pl) a probability or chance for future success, esp as based on present work or aptitude: a good job with prospects. A vision of the future; what is foreseen; expectation: she was excited at the prospect of living in London, unemployment presents a grim prospect.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain agriculture and economic development problems and prospect. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of agriculture and economic development problems and prospect


5.2 Summary

This study was on agriculture and economic development problems and prospect. Four objectives were raised which included:To identify the problems facing agriculture production in Edo state, to examine the role of agriculture in economic development of Edo state, to suggest possible solution to the problems that have emanated, to make appropriate recommendations to the farmers or modern use of farming techniques. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of ministry of agriculture Edo state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made agriculturists, agronomists, administrative staffand junior staffwere used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies


5.3 Conclusion

A joint agricultural policy will have great advantages with respect to coordination of research efforts and dissemination of findings. But production and marketing policies will require total submission of member states to a central policy-making body with the authority to dictate what, where and how much to produce. Other problems to be tackled include pricing problems, development assistance to slower developing members, possible retaliatory measures from the rest of the world and the question of smuggling between states. In the face of political differences, diametrically opposed interests and differences in affiliations to traditional trading partners, one may be tempted to say that a common agricultural policy will not be workable.


5.4 Recommendation

The paper also recommended that in the years ahead,

  1. More agricultural credit should be provided to formal and informal groups of committed farmers, so that peer pressure would help minimize incident of loan defaults.
  2. In addition, various government policies should be established; such as Agricultural research institute, agricultural input, public campaign, agricultural programme, agricultural mechanization, agricultural infrastructure and agricultural financing etc to achieve higher production in agriculture output.
  3. The paper also recognized the need for the development of human resources involved in the sector.

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