The Social And Economic Impact Of Farm Land Flooding In Etche Local Government

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering

The Social And Economic Impact Of Farm Land Flooding In Etche Local Government


This study assessed the social and economic impact of farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area, Rivers state using questionnaire survey, with a view to ascertaining its implications on the inhabitants of the area. The data were generated and analyzed using Independent samples T-test and Mann-Whitney U-test statistical technique. The result revealed that the farm land floods were mostly caused by heavy rainfall and anthropogenic activities such as construction on flood plains. The study also showed that the inhabitants experienced effects such as displacement from homes, submerging of farmland, loss of income, destruction of infrastructures, scarcity of food, overcrowding in shelter camps and spread of communicable diseases. Consequently, since flood has been ravaging the area recently, further research to develop flood hazard map of the area and enlightenment of the residents on flood issues was recommended.


Table of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Research Objectives
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
  • 1.8 Organization of Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Climate Change in Nigeria
  • 2.3 Impacts of Flooding in Nigeria
  • 2.3.1 Socio Economic Impacts
  • 2.3.2 Impact of Flooding on Agriculture
  • 2.4 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Study Area
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Target Population
  • 3.4 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.6 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2. Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.1 Background to the Study

Climate change and its impact have evolved so rapidly from a disaster evasion to a frightening reality. Climate change is believed to be a long time change in the atmospheric temperature and weather distribution in general. However, over the last twenty to thirty years the impacts of climate change through global warming has been drastic and poses great concern and imperatively the need seek sustainable measures to tackle the situation (WHO, 2012). Global warming related floods during the raining season. However, each seems to get worse leaving a larger impact than the future is the most common form of climate change affecting mankind at different levels resulting in depletion of natural resources, drought and flooding (Arnell and Reynard, 2016). The impact of climate change is felt in both developed and developing countries but the impact is felt the most in developing countries due to lack of adequate infrastructures to respond to it (IPPC, 2017). The focus of this research will be on flooding disasters and socio-econmic impact on urban dwellers in Ado Ekiti which has been an ongoing event for decades and automatically affects the social, economic and environmental well-being of the affected regions and country at large.

Flooding is when a dry area overflows with water and is not able to absorb it into the ground. The hazard of flooding is an annual phenomenon that has displaced millions every year worldwide and claimed lives and properties (Bronstert 2013). According to Bariweni et al., (2012) and Etuonovbe (2011), Nigeria experiences floods every year especially flash floods and dam previous. In 2012, the intensity with which the floods came left the affected areas in a tragic state. The flood displaced over 2.1 million Nigerians leaving them homeless. Hundreds of lives were lost and properties including hundreds of thousand hectares of farm lands washed away (NEMA 2012). The northern regions of the country were affected the most especially states which the major rivers pass through and communities by the riparian were completely submerged.

According to Bunu (2011), Northern Nigeria is characterized by very dry and very hot climate, especially in the north eastern and north western states. Drought and desertification therefore has always been the main focus of climate change challenges and environmental degradation issues. The general temperature of northern Nigeria remains constantly high during the day especially in dry seasons reaching a maximum of about 40 degrees Celsius on very hot days. A few areas in the north like the Jos and Biu plateau experience a relatively different climate from the generalized dry and hot climate. Temperatures on the plateau can be cold and a temperature difference of less than 10 degrees most times due to the high altitude (NNT, 2013). Drought no doubt is a concern but flooding has also become a major issue. However, within the last 3 decades flooding has become a perennial event in Nigeria. The reoccurrence of flooding is becoming more tragic due to the loss of lives, property and agriculture. It’s gotten worse due to change in rainfall pattern attributed to climate change. Climate change is a worldwide trend and should be treated with urgency as many regions are getting to a stage that is considered unfit for human survival due to land degradation. This has resulted in conflicts over extreme depletion of natural resources, increase in population and poverty causing severe risk to political, economic, and social stability (Schwartz and Randall, 2013). Way before crude oil was discovered in commercial quantity in Nigeria, agriculture was the major trade and source of livelihood and economic growth.

Floods had several socio-economic and political implications which caused a wide range of complex issues. Some of the immediate consequences included the displacement of people, the destruction of infrastructure such as houses and roads, damage to farms and crops and loss of cattle and livestock. The destruction of roads and other infrastructure delayed on-going development initiatives and political processes (Theron, 2017). Floods also caused loss of soil fertility which lessened future harvests. In the long-term, affected areas had to deal with the spread of infections and water borne diseases, cholera, dysentery and diarrhoea which increased the need for safe drinking water and the provision of water purification tablets. Grunfest (1995) argues that due to high poverty levels, people have become more vulnerable because they live in hazardous areas including flood plains and steep hills. They have fewer resources which makes them more susceptible to disasters .They are less likely to receive timely warnings. Furthermore, even if warnings were issued, they have fewer options for reducing losses in a timely manner. The poverty level affects the resilience and process of recovery from disasters. Disaster mitigation, preparedness and prevention needs to address socio-economic issues not only geological and meteorological aspects. It is to this end that the researcher carried out this study on the flooding disasters and socio economics impact on urban dweller in Ado Ekiti.

1.2 Statement of Problem

Floods are annual phenomena with the most severe appearance during the months of July and August in every year. Regular river floods affect 20% of the country increasing up to 68% in extreme years. The floods of 1988, 1998 and 2004 were particularly catastrophic, resulting in large-scale destruction and loss of agricultural product (Department of disaster management, 2012). Flood and riverbank erosion are two major environmental disasters that the country experiences recurrently and an estimated one million people are displaced every year due to riverbank erosion in the country (Elahi, 2010). This adversity is further worsened when the devastating flood and riverbank erosion together intensify the process of pauperization in rural areas in Ado Ekiti and its environs (Rahman, 2016; Karim, 2010 and Islam, 2013). The number of people at risk has been growing each year and the majority is in developing countries like Ado Ekiti and its environ with high poverty levels making them more vulnerable to disasters (Living with Risk, 2010). Grunfest (2015) argues that due to high poverty levels, people have become more vulnerable because they live in hazardous areas including flood plains of river and over the embankment.

It is estimated that become of 35% of the total population in Nigeria and it’s environs live below poverty level having problems in food subsistence (Khandaker et al., 2010; Karim, 2012). The majority of the people in rural Etche and it’s environs do not have access to proper nutrition, housing settlement and healthcare facilities. Poverty situation is further deteriorated because of natural hazards and calamities every year. Flood and riverbank erosion often dislocates cultivable land and human settlements, and it also destroys agricultural crops massively, disrupts road-linkages and communication infrastructure of the country. Because of this critical situation, displaces and victims of natural disasters face multi-dimensional environmental problems. In maximum cases, they have been unable to adapt with the changing conditions of many sociopolitical, economic and cultural strategies in order to survive in the face of the plethora of problems.

From an academic point of view, many aspects of these environmental issues of Etche and it’s environs have remained understudied. In this view, there are few studies on flood and its secondary effects of riverbank erosion displaces from the livelihood perspective. We do not even know the reasons for flood in the study area. There has a very limited research on the flood and the secondary causes of flood and its effects on the livelihood assets of the community. For that reason, this research has generated data on the flood and riverbank erosion (as the secondary cause of flood) displacement and the impacts of it on the livelihood of the study area. Based on field study, the research provides contextual socio-economic and cultural data at the experiential level. The general purpose of this study has been to assess the social and economic impact of farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area, Rivers state.

1.3 Research Objectives

The general objective of this study is to assess the social and economic impact of farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area, Rivers state.

Specifically, the study seeks to carry out the following objectives:

  1. To identify the causes of farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area
  2. To determine the health impact of farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area
  3. To determine the social impact of farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area
  4. To determine the economic impact farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated form the research objectives and are used to guide the study;

  1. What are the causes of farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area?
  2. What is the health impact of farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area?
  3. What is the social impact of farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area?
  4. What is the economic impact farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area?

1.5 Hypothesis

  • HO1: There is no significant difference between the causative factors of farm land floods in Etche Local Government Area.
  • HO2: There is no significant difference between the soio-economic impact of farm land floods in Etche Local Government Area.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study is important because it assesses and estimates the impact of farm land floods on the socio-economic livelihoods of urban dwellers in Etche LGA. The study also endeavors to establish the underlying causes of vulnerability of people in Etche. More importantly, it is envisaged that the outputs of the study will be key inputs in the designing of sustainable mitigation measures to minimize the impact of floods and the associated risks. The importance of this research cannot be overemphasized because of its immense significance to different groups of people and stakeholders who would find this information from the study findings very useful for official purposes and decision making. The study will enable the management of flooding and provide an in-depth understanding and knowledge of the flood prevention strategies available so that they can adopt them adequately. The study will also serve as a source of secondary data for students and scholars who intend to carry out similar studies in the future.

1.7 Operational Definition of Terms


A temporary overflow of a normally dry area due to overflow of a body of water, unusual buildup, runoff of surface waters, or abnormal erosion

Farmland Flooding:

Is flooding in key agricultural production areas can lead to widespread damage to crops and fencing and loss of livestock. Crop losses through rain damage, waterlogged soils, and delays in harvesting are further intensified by transport problems due to flooded roads and damaged infrastructure.

Socio-Economic Impact:

A socio-economic impact assessment is a structured way of a showing a proposal’s advantages and disadvantages for society as a whole and for various parties. Economic impacts (can include effects on employment).

1.8 Organization of Study

The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This study was carried out to assess the social and economic impact of farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area, Rivers state. The research reviewed a wide range of secondary literature and collected primary data on which the conclusion and recommendations are based. The study was conducted within the Disaster Risk Reduction conceptual framework which emphasizes a proactive approach to disaster management; in this case, farm land flooding. It is imperative that communities (whether urban or rural) adopt a risk reduction approach to effects of floods and flooding disasters. The research endeavored to answer the following questions:

  1. What are the causes of farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area?
  2. What is the health impact of farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area?
  3. What is the social impact of farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area?
  4. What is the economic impact farm land flooding in Etche Local Government Area?

From the work done, the following findings were found;

– That anthropogenic activity like construction on flood plains, deforestation, bush burning, drainage failure, over grazing and agricultural activities, over population and urbanization trigger and aggravate flood activities in Etche LGA.

– That flood has impacted on both social and economic activities in Etche LGA in a number of ways including displacement of families, migration of people, poor health condition, traffic congestion, impairment of communication, loss of farmlands, loss of income, loss of household and structural properties, increase in the price of goods and services, destruction of social infrastructure.

5.2. Conclusion

As discussed under various sectors and across sectors, it is clear from the study that floods had adverse impact on the socio-economic status of livelihoods for people in Etche LGA. To a large extent, the study has established that livelihood patterns play an important role in settlement patterns. The study has further demonstrated that effects of floods in one sector can affect other sectors of society. For instance, as discussed under the health section, the outbreak of disease incidences (malaria, diarrhea and coughing) was attributed to the impact of floods on water sources and sanitation facilities. The issue of water contamination of the river at the pick of floods and the handling of water from the borehole increases the health risk. Furthermore, although no health facility was damaged due to floods, accessibility to health services was a problem due to infrastructure (roads and bridges) damage as discussed under the health section.

From the study, it was clear that households cope differently when affected by floods. The current coping strategies being employed by most households are not very effective. Discussions at community and district levels established that the coping strategies were not sustainable because they had been using them and yet the situation did not seem to improve. The local communities coping capacities should not be underestimated but rather built upon. The focus must be on improving livelihood conditions of the people.

Clearly, there is need to develop better and appropriate measures (as discussed under the implications and recommendations sections) to prepare and mitigate the effects of the floods there-of. Above all, the aim must be to involve all the players to enhance communities’ resilience to floods.

5.3 Recommendations

It is therefore appropriate in this chapter to highlight some policy consideration which, if implemented could play an important role in flood risk management. The following policy considerations are recommended:

  1. Government and key stakeholders should engage communities in order for them to move permanently to higher grounds as they have expressed a willingness to relocate. The relocating should go with the provision of all the necessary socio amenities such as schools, hospitals, infrastructure, water and agriculture support for a period of three (3) years to enable the households to settle. Consideration should also be made to introduce alternative livelihood strategies in the new area of settlement.
  2. There should be a deliberate policy to compel communities especially in rural areas to build house using durable materials and away from the flood prone areas.
  3. The Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives should through Extension Services encourage Communities to increase area cultivated on the upland in order to enhance food security and household level.
  4. Construction of dams should be considered to trap the excess water. This could be used for irrigation. Also, the government and key Stakeholders should engage the communities and local authorities in making them aware of the flood risk in view of the climate variability.

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