Survey Of Different Sources Of Income For Development Of Secondary Schools
This study investigated thedifferent sources of income for development of secondary schools in Yola of Adamawa State. The need for this study arose because of the noticeable problems especially inadequate provision of money and physical facilities for effective secondary school administration. Five research questions and five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A questionnaire consisting of 30 items was designed and administered to seventy three (73) duty principals and thirty (30) executive members of non-governmental organizations existing in Yola of Adamawa State. The data collected were analyzed using mean scores and standard deviation. A mean score of 2.50 was adopted as the base line. The t-test statistic was used to test the null hypotheses. The study found that: community development association. Christian Association of Nigeria, Rotary Club International, and Alumni Association did not make significant contributions towards funding secondary schools. However, market women association made little contributions towards funding secondary school in Yola. Following recommendations were made: Government should initiate policies that will increase non-governmental organization participation in the funding of secondary school, government and various local government authorities should liaise with various non-governmental organizations in the community to participate in funding secondary education in their communities.
1.1 Background of the Study
Financing formal education in Nigeria has become an issue of public concern as a result of the present economic down turn and worldwide inflation. According to Central Bank of Nigeria (2003), poor financing has been the bane of Nigerian education system to the extent that the budgetary allocation has been very low. Furthermore, the federal government allocation to education has declined steadily since 1999 and is much lower than average in the last five years. This is particularly important in view of huge increase in number of intake at all levels of education primary, secondary schools and tertiary. Ajetomob and Ayanwale (2004) observed that one of the approaches government adopts in financing education in Nigeria is the annual budgetary allocation to the sector that are distributed as subvention or grants to the different levels of education the grants or subventions are made through respective education ministry of government by the coordinating agencies of education such as the National University Commission (NUC), National Commission for Colleges of Education (NABTEB), Secondary schools Education Management Board (SEMB) and Universal Basic Education
Commission. They went further to say that since the oil crisis in the eighties, the proportion of capital budget allocated to education has been consistently lower than the proportion of recurrent expenditure over the years, the government capital expenditure allocated to education as a percentage of total capital budgets ranged from as low as 1.7 percent in 1999 and not up to 9% in all case. Like total budget, the proportion was not consistent and this however, has retarded progresses in building facilities (Okunamiri, 2007). This view agrees with Moja (2000) when he asserts that building of classroom has not kept up with increased enrolment in all levels of Education in Nigeria. Worst affected are primary and secondary schoolsschools where classes are offered in the open air. In several secondary schoolsschools, as many as four classes are accommodated in one classroom and these are classes that are already over crowded and in poor state of repairs. In addition, laboratories and equipment are grossly inadequate and the attendant problems in terms of quality of education usually tell on the products (Ajetomobi&Ayanwale, 2004). Abdullahi (2003) stated:
“since independence there has been a consistent increasing demand for educational services in Nigeria. This demand arose as a result of population growth, increasing social demands (the desire to educate a good proportion of the population) and need for more skilled manpower in the country. The increasing demand on educational services means the establishment of more schools and provision of more teachers and materials. The result is that the burden of funding education in Nigeria, which rests mainly on the various tiers of government, is becoming unbearable. This fact is evident by the existence of numerous problems bedeviling the Education sector in the country. It is a foregone conclusion that in Nigeria with a population of over 100 million, a good percentage of which consists of young people, the funding of education can no longer be totally left in the hands of government (p:43)”
The scenario described above, particularly the rapid changes in the education sector since independence, depicts a state of chaos in the sector. The result is that numerous problems are easily discernible in the sector including the following:
- Poor infrastructural facilities in schools at all levels.
- Poor number and quality of teachers particularly at primary and secondary schools level
- Poor quality products (graduate) from schools at all levels.
- Loss of confidence by the general pubic in the sector.
Most of these problems arose from inadequate funding of the sector
Fashina (2005) observe that in 1994, the funding formula was revised by the government so that the state would share 50% equally, thus educationally disadvantaged states 25%, pupil enrolment 25% and population of the states 10%. In 1999, the then government scrapped the National Primary Education Fund (NPEF) and reconstituted it under another name (the National Primary Education Commission). This action was taken in recognition of the states and local government’s constitutional responsibility for financing and managing primary education. Alternative source of funding explored by government is the Education Tax Fund (ETF) established in 1995. It ensured that companies with more than 100 employees contribute 2% of their pretax earnings to the fund. Primary education receives 40% of this fund; secondary schools education receives 10% and higher education 50%. Primary education has in the past also received from Petroleum Trust Fund (PTF) for capital expenditure and provision of instructional materials. While in higher institutions, gifts, endowment funds, consultancy services farms, satellite campuses, pre-degrees are other alternative funding sources. Despite all the alternatives, the infrastructures, and facilities remain inadequate for coping with a system that is growing at a very rapid pace. The annual population growth rate was 3.3% (C.B.N, 2003). Due to poor financing, the quality of education offered is affected by poor attendance and inadequate preparation by teachers at all levels. The morale of teachers is low due to basic condition of service and low salaries.
Furthermore, physical facilities need to be upgraded and resources such as libraries, modern communication and information technology equipment have to be provided (Anozie, 2000).
The quest for meeting these basic education needs has been the cause of unending crisis between government trade union such as Nigerian union of teachers (NUT), Academic staff union of universities (ASUU),
Non-Academic staff union (NASU). In the same direction, Ogbonnaya (2005) contends that education sector competes with the industrial, health, agriculture, communication sectors of the economy and as such demands effective funding from government. The same is true of other sectors. Thus, the funds made available for education are never enough as these sectors must receive attention as well. In view of the above, it may be observed that formal education is at cross roads in the country, especially when other sectors of the economy are competing keenly for attention as much as education does in the national budgetary allocation.
In the same vein, Okunamiri (2007) observed that, at independence, government funding of formal education increased tremendously especially in the seventies following the increase in revenue from federation account due to the oil boom which made it possible for the introduction of Universal
Primary Education (UPE) nationwide, in September 1976. Within same period, students in tertiary institutions enjoyed free tuition, scholarship loan and bursaries. The country began to set for herself priorities and these priorities were pursued and financed towards the actualization of objectives of education in national development. All these efforts were geared towards actualizing the federal government’s policy as spelt out in the national policy on Education, that government ultimate objectives is to make education free at all levels, that the financing of education is a joint responsibility of the federal, state and local governments and that in this connection, government welcomes and encourages private agencies in helping to finance education.
Indeed, the policy highlighted the role of the three, tiers of government in the financing of education, such as provision of fund for the building of classroom block, laboratory equipment, payment of teachers salary by the tiers under which the institutions belongs to. But the government has failed to involve private and non-governmental especially now that present economic down turn, arising from the global economic recession could no longer permit government to fully meet its financial obligation to education sector. If formal education must achieve its laudable goals and objectives as entrenched in the National Policy on Education, its priorities such as funding by the government and participation by the private sector have to be addressed.
Appraisal of the role of Ministry of Education towards funding is an attempt to evaluate the extent to which Ministry of Education existing in the communities meet up with their funding obligations to public secondary schoolsschools, putting into consideration certain bench marks for Ministry of Education participations in the financing of public secondary schoolsschools in the area in which they exist.
According to corporate affairs commission report (2008), contends that “in order to promote school, community relationship, private organizations existing in the communities should directly or indirectly participate in the funding of public schools in the area in which they exist.
Therefore, the following forms the bench mark for evaluation of nongovernmental organization participation in the funding of public secondary schools.
- Donations for the development of school plants
- Donations for award of scholarship
- Provision for endowment fund.
- Staff welfare and development
- Provision of funds for purchase of stationeries.
The apathy of the Ministry of Educations that is those organization that exist in the communities which are not owned by the government such as Christian Association of Nigeria, Rotary Club
International, Development Association, like town union, Alumni
Association and market women Associations in educational financing in Nigeria and which has put the major thrust of provision of formal education on government has been confirmed by Jaiyeoba and Atanada (2004) and Okunamiri (2007). These researchers observed that poor funding of schools and inadequate provision of resources to cope with the ever-increasing demand for educational provision have led to inadequate provision of facilities for effective teaching and learning and thus hinders achievement of educational objectives.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Funding of formal education in Nigeria has been a topical issue due to the present bleak in economy arising from the global inflationary trend and economic down turn. Inspite of the efforts of the different governments of the federation to provide funds for education, educational institutions still lack the necessary funds to implement various programmes.
The problem of this study emanated from various inadequacies associated with the Nigerian educational system, inadequacies in terms of teaching and learning facilities, school plants, nonpayment of teachers salaries, modern technologies, uncondusive learning environment. This thus, arouses the interest of the researcher to investigate the extent to which different sources of income are used for the development of secondary schools school in Yola metropolis.
Therefore, the problem of this study is to evaluate the extent to which different economic agent sources of income are used for the development of.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to carry out a survey on different sources of income for development of secondary schools school in Yola metropolis specifically, the study seeks to:
- Find out the extent to which community development Associations fund post primary institutions.
- Find out the extent to which rotary club international fund postprimary schools.
- Evaluate the extent to which Christian Association of Nigeria funds public secondary schoolsschools.
- Determine the extent to which Alumni Associations funds secondary schools.
- Find out the extent market woman Associations fund secondary schools.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The benefits that shall accrue from this study are many. Specifically, students, parents, school principals and researchers. This study will be of benefit to students because, they are the direct beneficiaries of what goes on in the schools. Therefore, appraising the extent to which non-governmental and government organizations funds schools will show a clear picture of the financial state of secondary schoolsschools, will spur suggestions on how to deal with the various inadequacies associated with the school system.
Another group that will benefit from this study are parents. This is because these group of people have their children in schools where various inadequacies have been limiting effective teaching and learning. Therefore, if their children will benefit from this study as students, indirectly their parents would also benefit from this study.
The findings of the study will be of immense benefit to various tiers of government such as local, state and federal government to whom the burden of educational funding seems to have left with. This study will show a clear picture on the extent to which Ministry of Education fund post-primary schools thereby serving as an appraisal report to the government.
The findings of the study will be of immense benefit to school principals who have been the victims of inadequacies of resources needed for effective execution of educational programmes, since this study aims at appraising the extent to which Ministry of Education funds educational institutions. Probably, suggestions on how to improve private sector participation in funding may be arrived at thereby enabling school principals to have enough resources to execute educational programmes in schools.
Lastly, the result of this study will be of importance to future researchers who may wish to carryout studies relating to the problem under study.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is delimited to Yola Education Zone of Adamawa State involving all the staffs of Ministry of Educations existing in the zone.
The content scope of this study involves the extent Christian Association of Nigeria, Alumni Association, market Women Associations, Rotary club international and community development Association funds secondary schools.
1.6 Research Questions
To guide this study, the following research questions were posed:
- To what extent do community development Associations fund secondary schools?
- To what extent does rotary club international fund post – primary institutions?
- To what extent does Christian Association of Nigeria fund public primary schools?
- To what extent does Alumni Associations fund post – primary institutions?
- To what extent does market women Associations fund post – primary institutions?
1.7 Hypotheses of the study
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and was tested at 0.05 level of significance.
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the mean response of staffs of the association on the extent to which community development Associations fund post – primary schools.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of principals and staffs on the extent to which rotary club international funds post – primary institutions.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of principals and staffs on the extent to which Christian Association of Nigeria funds public secondary schoolsschools.
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of principals and staffs on the extent to which Alumni Associations funds postprimary schools.
Ho5: There is no significant difference in the mean responses of principals and staffs on the extent to which women Association funds post-primary institutions. education, secondary schools, responses of principals and staffs, secondary schools school in yola, schools school in yola metropolis
Conclusion and Summary
5.1 Conclusion from the Study
The findings and discussion of this study served as basis for making the following: Conclusions, this study which aims at determining the different sources of income for development of secondary schools reveals that among the five non- governmental organizations studied only market women Associations made little contribution towards funding secondary education in the area of the study.
5.1.1 Educational Implication of the Findings
The findings of this study has the following educational implications:
It has been observed that no educational programme can be executed effectively without proper funding. The state government should therefore explore ways of encouraging the participation of non-governmental organizations in the funding of secondary education in the state so as to enhance efficient service delivery.
Adequate infrastructural facilities and equipment enhances quality delivery of any educational programme.
However, the funds available to school heads are not sufficient. Thus, need for alternative sources becomes inevitable.
Effective funding of secondary education by non governmental organization is marred by government vague policies regarding private sector participation in funding, management and administration of educational programmes in Nigeria.
The data collected for this study have been interpreted and the results of the study discussed. Based on this discussion, some implications of the findings of this study for educational practice were derived. The recommendations stated below are as a result these implications:
Secondary education should be funded adequately by providing infrastructural facilities and equipment in secondary schools.
The ministry of education should encourage the non-governmental organizations to participate actively in the funding of secondary schools.
Government should initiate policies that will increase non – governmental organization participation in the funding of secondary school. They should provide special incentives to private organization which fund schools to encourage them to fund school more.
The state government and the various local government Authorities should liase with the various non governmental organization in their communities including the religious organizations on the need to participate in funding secondary education in their communities.
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