Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes In Kaduna River

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Science Students

Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes In Kaduna River


Abstract


Four (4) sites or area were sampled, using the”simple random sampling technique” to make up the study group namely; Malali, Ungwan Rimi, Stadium round about, Kawo for soil or root-not nematodes from tomatoes plant. Ten (10) plants uprooted randomly at each site(s) visited making a total of forty (40) plants were isolation and identification of nematodes was done at the Department of Crop Protection, Institute of Agricultural Research (I.A.R.) Ahmadu Bello University Zaria  base on movement action, tail, shape and a tutorial book.

Result obtained shared occurrence of nematodes as follows; Malali, 342; Ungwan Rimi 40; Stadium Round About, 66; Kawo, 261; making a total of 708 nematodes. Of this number, Crieonemoides accounted for 7(0.990Co); Helicotylenchus 544 (76.840Co); Meloidogyne larva 62 (8.760Co); Pratylenchus 19 (2-680Co); Rotylenchus 64 (9.040Co) and Tylenchus 12 (1.690Co). the researcher; considering the negative effect of these on the yield/production of tomatoes, suggests/profers/and also, when transplanting, intercropping.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page i
  • Certification page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Tomato
  • 1.3 Origin
  • 1.4 Study Area
  • 1.5 Purpose Of The Study
  • 1.6 Aims And Objectives

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Fruits Or Vegetable
  • 2.3 Types Of Canned Tomatoes
  • 2.4 Benefits Of Eating Tomatoes
  • 2.5 Nutrition Facts Of Canned Tomatoes

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Sterilization Of Materials And Media Preparation
  • 3.2 Sample Collection
  • 3.3 Canned Tomatoes Preparation
  • 3.4 Sample Preservation
  • 3.5 Isolation Of Microbes From The Study Samples
  • 3.6 Sub-Culturing By Streak Method
  • 3.7 Laboratory Identification Of Nematode

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Nematodes are tiny, thread-like worms measuring 0.0 15 inch to 0.187 inch in length. They are either free living parasitic or saprophytic, identified on the basis of shapes, size and special structures. The females become swollen and flask-shaped as a result of accumulation of eggs with the anus virtually terminal in position, while the males are vermiform (Sherf and Macnah, 1986; Chitwood, 1949; Taylor and Sasser, 1978; Idowu, 1979 and Idowu, 1983)
Nematodes are known for causing destructive diseases of crops as they have a wide range of feeding habit, constitute about 80% of all multicellular animals, attacking nearly every crop that is grown in the field and as a result crop yields is greatly affected reducing quantity and quality of crops on field, orchard, home garden and green houses (Mai, 1985; Symth, 1994; Sasser, 1952). Among the favoured host in Nigeria as a whole include tomato, yam, tobacco, papaw, citrus and sweet potato (Sasser, 1954).


1.2 Tomato

Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) belongs to the family Solanaceae and subilass polypetalae of the dicotyledenous group of plants. Tomato is a slight modification of tomato the name used by the Indians of Mexico, who have grown the plant for food since prehistoric times. Other names reported by early European explorers were tomato, tumatle and tomatas, probably variants of Indian words (Wener, 2004).


1.3 Origin

The precise origin of tomato remains a mystery but there is reason to believe that the original tomato came from Peru called tomato, it was taken to Mexico by migrating Peruvians. It found its way to Italy through the explorations of Christopher Columbus. Tomatoes were taken back to Europe along with silver and gold and they were grown on the continent as a pretty curiosity (Fallagatter, 1999). Though, tomato has become one of the most popular and widely grown vegetables in the world (Chung, 1998), until the 19th century, it was grown chiefly as an ornamental plant for its colourful fruit (Villareal, 1980). This is because it was regarded with suspicion due to the reputation of Solanum-like fruits being poisonous (Philips and Rix, 1993)


1.4 Study Area

Kaduna is the State capital of Kaduna State in north central Nigeria. The city, located on the Kaduna River, is a trade center and a major transportation hub for the surrounding agricultural areas with its rail and road junction.
The Kaduna River is a tributary of the Niger River which flows for 550 kilometers through Nigeria. It got its name from the crocodiles that lived in the river and surrounding area. Kaduna in the native dialect, Hausa, was the word for “crocodile ’’(http:// maguzawa.dyndns.ws/ Retrieved on 2009-07-09). Activities going on there includes; fishing, packing of sand and farming such as maize, tomato, spinach, cocoa-yam, okro, pepper etc.


1.5 Purpose Of The Study

The destruction of plants comes from organisms including nematode and insect pest. However, this study is restricted only to those plant nematodes that affect tomatoes grown in some selected area of River Kaduna. Many plants are damage by plant parasitic nematodes which feeds and multiply in or on root, stem spreading soil borne viruses or facilitate secondary infection by bacteria and algae.

All kind of living organisms are dependent on plants in one way or the other for their food supply. Therefore, controlling nematode that destroy our crops, it is almost important both agriculturally, economically and socially for well being of both living organism. Although important contributions in nematology are coming in from many countries. Like Nigeria, generally expanded it is in view of hope that it help in one way or the other in preventing or controlling plants nematodes, as the knowledge of the nematodes themselves is important toward successful nematode control.


1.6 Aims And Objectives

  1. To isolate and identify nematode
  2. To determine the distribution or assessment of nematode populations
  3. Proper suggestion on minimizing infection.

Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The microbial load including microflora isolated from raw (local) tomatoes sources are at close range to those isolated from the canned tomatoes sources which still shows the natural protective lactic acid components of this food source. Canning is a good means of preserving food such as tomatoes, however, exposure of canned tomato to air gives room for deterioration by microorganisms as shown in this study (Table 1b). The microbial agents of tomato spoilage include; Candida tropicalis, Aspergillusniger, Penicilliumnotatum, Fusariumoxysporum, Absidacorynmbimfera, Rhizopusstolonifer, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp. and Klebisiella spp., thus consumption of spoilt tomato could predispose the consumer to infection by the above mentioned organisms.


5.2 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made;

  1. So, both raw and canned tomato should be well protected from contaminants to limit proliferation of some spoilage microbes that can use tomatoes as vehicle of infection.
  2. Also the technology of canning should be improved by taking adequate precautions to ensure safety during the process. Similarly, the nature of microorganism encountered in this study can be used to determine some food preservation systems in the study area. This will enhance nutritive consumption of this food source to promote health.
  3. It is therefore important that farmers should avoid the use of organic manure that contains animal or human faecal matters as fertilizer which was potential habitats for E. coli, Salmonella spp., klebsiellla spp. and Pseudomonasaeruginosa. They should use inorganic fertilizers.
  4. The storage of tomato fruit should be done at a temperature and relative humidity that does not favours the growth of contaminating organisms. Consumption of raw or partially cooked tomato in the form of Sandwich or salad should be avoided since it could predispose the consumer to nematodes infections.

Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes In Kaduna River


Project Material Download

3,000 Naira


The complete material will be sent to you in just 2 steps.

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make payment of ₦3,000: through USSD Transfer, Bank Mobile App, ATM Transfer, or POS Transfer to:

Access Bank PlcAccount No.: 0811003731
Name: Samphina Academy
Account Type: Current

Or Click Here to pay with Debit Card

FOR CLIENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA:
Click Here to pay with Debit Card ($15)
GHANA – Make Payment of 60 GHS to MTN MoMo, 0553978005, Douglas Osabutey 

  PAY WITH CRYPTOCURRENCY


Step Two Purchase

Send the following details through Text Message or WhatsApp Messenger | +234-8143831497

  • Payment Details 
  • Email Address 
  • Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes In Kaduna River

The complete material will be sent to your email address after receiving your payment information | T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


You may also like:

⚠️ Need a different topic? Perform a quick search



Get A Complete Business Plan For Any Business In Nigeria

Business Plan for Businesses in Nigeria

  Business Plans in Nigeria


Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes In Kaduna River


Disclaimer

This research material “Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes In Kaduna River” is for research purposes and should be used as a guide in developing your research project / seminar work. For no reason should you copy word for word (verbatim) as samphina.com.ng will not be liable for any who copied the material.

The aim of providing this material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for research materials. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon “All creative work builds on what came before”.

samphina.com.ng is only providing this material “Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes In Kaduna River” as a reference for your research. The paper should be used as a guide or framework for your own paper. The contents of this paper should be able to help you in generating new ideas and thoughts for your own research. Use it as a guidance purpose only.


How to defend your research work


This is a general guide on how to defend your research work:

1. Prepare For Questions:

If you are preparing for questions that may be asked during your defense, then your answers will flow smoothly and effectively. This will prove your knowledge on the subject e.g “Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes In Kaduna River“, and strengthening your argument. Ask friends and family, read your work for them to listen to your presentation, and write down questions. You may be lucky the panel will ask you those you have already prepared on.

2. Strong Summary:

Summarizing your chapters will help keep your audience focused because it is easy for a mind to drift, so providing summaries will ensure your panel will follow along, even if they lose focus for a brief moment. Visual aides, such as graphs and power-point presentations can be very helpful. If you are going to use these, make sure you will practice your presentation with them.

3. Be Confident in Your Research Work:

Not knowing your topic “Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes In Kaduna River” inside out will cause you to struggle and ultimately fail with your defense. You need to know the subject from every angle to ensure you are fully prepared for any question that may come your way.

4. Conclusion:

Reinforce your findings to conclude your defense. The finale of your presentation should focus on proving the work that has been done. You may need to recap on what has changed and remained unchanged, if is necessary.

5 . Listen:

Before you get defensive or recite a particular answer, make sure you truly understand the question being asked. Being a good listener is an important quality, because providing an inaccurate or off-topic answer will also weaken the validity of your paper.

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.