Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes In Kaduna River

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Science Students

Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes In Kaduna River


Four (4) sites or area were sampled, using the”simple random sampling technique” to make up the study group namely; Malali, Ungwan Rimi, Stadium round about, Kawo for soil or root-not nematodes from tomatoes plant. Ten (10) plants uprooted randomly at each site(s) visited making a total of forty (40) plants were isolation and identification of nematodes was done at the Department of Crop Protection, Institute of Agricultural Research (I.A.R.) Ahmadu Bello University Zaria  base on movement action, tail, shape and a tutorial book.

Result obtained shared occurrence of nematodes as follows; Malali, 342; Ungwan Rimi 40; Stadium Round About, 66; Kawo, 261; making a total of 708 nematodes. Of this number, Crieonemoides accounted for 7(0.990Co); Helicotylenchus 544 (76.840Co); Meloidogyne larva 62 (8.760Co); Pratylenchus 19 (2-680Co); Rotylenchus 64 (9.040Co) and Tylenchus 12 (1.690Co). the researcher; considering the negative effect of these on the yield/production of tomatoes, suggests/profers/and also, when transplanting, intercropping.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page i
  • Certification page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Tomato
  • 1.3 Origin
  • 1.4 Study Area
  • 1.5 Purpose Of The Study
  • 1.6 Aims And Objectives

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Fruits Or Vegetable
  • 2.3 Types Of Canned Tomatoes
  • 2.4 Benefits Of Eating Tomatoes
  • 2.5 Nutrition Facts Of Canned Tomatoes

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials And Methods

  • 3.1 Sterilization Of Materials And Media Preparation
  • 3.2 Sample Collection
  • 3.3 Canned Tomatoes Preparation
  • 3.4 Sample Preservation
  • 3.5 Isolation Of Microbes From The Study Samples
  • 3.6 Sub-Culturing By Streak Method
  • 3.7 Laboratory Identification Of Nematode

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Nematodes are tiny, thread-like worms measuring 0.0 15 inch to 0.187 inch in length. They are either free living parasitic or saprophytic, identified on the basis of shapes, size and special structures. The females become swollen and flask-shaped as a result of accumulation of eggs with the anus virtually terminal in position, while the males are vermiform (Sherf and Macnah, 1986; Chitwood, 1949; Taylor and Sasser, 1978; Idowu, 1979 and Idowu, 1983)
Nematodes are known for causing destructive diseases of crops as they have a wide range of feeding habit, constitute about 80% of all multicellular animals, attacking nearly every crop that is grown in the field and as a result crop yields is greatly affected reducing quantity and quality of crops on field, orchard, home garden and green houses (Mai, 1985; Symth, 1994; Sasser, 1952). Among the favoured host in Nigeria as a whole include tomato, yam, tobacco, papaw, citrus and sweet potato (Sasser, 1954).

1.2 Tomato

Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) belongs to the family Solanaceae and subilass polypetalae of the dicotyledenous group of plants. Tomato is a slight modification of tomato the name used by the Indians of Mexico, who have grown the plant for food since prehistoric times. Other names reported by early European explorers were tomato, tumatle and tomatas, probably variants of Indian words (Wener, 2004).

1.3 Origin

The precise origin of tomato remains a mystery but there is reason to believe that the original tomato came from Peru called tomato, it was taken to Mexico by migrating Peruvians. It found its way to Italy through the explorations of Christopher Columbus. Tomatoes were taken back to Europe along with silver and gold and they were grown on the continent as a pretty curiosity (Fallagatter, 1999). Though, tomato has become one of the most popular and widely grown vegetables in the world (Chung, 1998), until the 19th century, it was grown chiefly as an ornamental plant for its colourful fruit (Villareal, 1980). This is because it was regarded with suspicion due to the reputation of Solanum-like fruits being poisonous (Philips and Rix, 1993)

1.4 Study Area

Kaduna is the State capital of Kaduna State in north central Nigeria. The city, located on the Kaduna River, is a trade center and a major transportation hub for the surrounding agricultural areas with its rail and road junction.
The Kaduna River is a tributary of the Niger River which flows for 550 kilometers through Nigeria. It got its name from the crocodiles that lived in the river and surrounding area. Kaduna in the native dialect, Hausa, was the word for “crocodile ’’(http:// Retrieved on 2009-07-09). Activities going on there includes; fishing, packing of sand and farming such as maize, tomato, spinach, cocoa-yam, okro, pepper etc.

1.5 Purpose Of The Study

The destruction of plants comes from organisms including nematode and insect pest. However, this study is restricted only to those plant nematodes that affect tomatoes grown in some selected area of River Kaduna. Many plants are damage by plant parasitic nematodes which feeds and multiply in or on root, stem spreading soil borne viruses or facilitate secondary infection by bacteria and algae.

All kind of living organisms are dependent on plants in one way or the other for their food supply. Therefore, controlling nematode that destroy our crops, it is almost important both agriculturally, economically and socially for well being of both living organism. Although important contributions in nematology are coming in from many countries. Like Nigeria, generally expanded it is in view of hope that it help in one way or the other in preventing or controlling plants nematodes, as the knowledge of the nematodes themselves is important toward successful nematode control.

1.6 Aims And Objectives

  1. To isolate and identify nematode
  2. To determine the distribution or assessment of nematode populations
  3. Proper suggestion on minimizing infection.

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The microbial load including microflora isolated from raw (local) tomatoes sources are at close range to those isolated from the canned tomatoes sources which still shows the natural protective lactic acid components of this food source. Canning is a good means of preserving food such as tomatoes, however, exposure of canned tomato to air gives room for deterioration by microorganisms as shown in this study (Table 1b). The microbial agents of tomato spoilage include; Candida tropicalis, Aspergillusniger, Penicilliumnotatum, Fusariumoxysporum, Absidacorynmbimfera, Rhizopusstolonifer, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp. and Klebisiella spp., thus consumption of spoilt tomato could predispose the consumer to infection by the above mentioned organisms.

5.2 Recommendations

The following recommendations were made;

  1. So, both raw and canned tomato should be well protected from contaminants to limit proliferation of some spoilage microbes that can use tomatoes as vehicle of infection.
  2. Also the technology of canning should be improved by taking adequate precautions to ensure safety during the process. Similarly, the nature of microorganism encountered in this study can be used to determine some food preservation systems in the study area. This will enhance nutritive consumption of this food source to promote health.
  3. It is therefore important that farmers should avoid the use of organic manure that contains animal or human faecal matters as fertilizer which was potential habitats for E. coli, Salmonella spp., klebsiellla spp. and Pseudomonasaeruginosa. They should use inorganic fertilizers.
  4. The storage of tomato fruit should be done at a temperature and relative humidity that does not favours the growth of contaminating organisms. Consumption of raw or partially cooked tomato in the form of Sandwich or salad should be avoided since it could predispose the consumer to nematodes infections.

Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes In Kaduna River

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Isolation And Identification Of Nematode Affecting Tomatoes In Kaduna River


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