The Effect Of Leachate From Solid Wats Dumpsites On Groundwater Quality In Baba Ode, Coca-Cola Road, Ilori, Kwara State, Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural and Bio-Environmental Engineering

The Effect Of Leachate From Solid Wats Dumpsites On Groundwater Quality In Baba Ode, Coca-Cola Road, Ilori, Kwara State, Nigeria


Chapter One


Introduction

Waste is defined as unwanted or undesired materials accumulating after the completion of a process (Cointreau, 2001). Waste is also characterized as items that are no longer used for any significant function. They are classified as items with hazardous properties. Such hazardous wastes include household dump items, sewage, sludge, waste from manufacturing industries etc. (Obeka, 2005).

Adekunle, et al., (2007) assessed the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand-dug wells in Igbara area of South West region of Nigeria. From the results of analysis, it was discovered that most of the pollutants increased in concentration during the rainy season over dry periods. Coliform population, lead, nitrate and cadmium in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended thresholds for potable water. It was therefore concluded that well water in the area is not safe for direct consumption. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques were recommended.

Longe and Balogun (2010) investigated the extent of groundwater contamination of six sampling points between 10 and 375 meters down-gradient of a landfill site.

From results of the analysis, it was discovered that the groundwater samples were generally acidic with a mean pH value of 6.13 which is below the World Health Organization WHO and Nigeria Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) guidelines for portable water, the study revealed that the quantity of the groundwater resource underlying soils landfill site has been moderately impacted.

It was also shown that nitrate, chromium and phosphate concentrations were above the highest permissible limits (WHO, 2004 NSDWQ, 2007). Observations revealed that with time, the accumulation of leachate at the base of the sanitary landfill can break through into the groundwater while gas emission also posed potential environmental and health risk. Yaya and Okafor (2010) also analysed the microbial status of groundwater and surface water in the Federal Capital City of Nigeria (Abuja), taking samples during the dry and rainy seasons. Result of the research revealed that coliform count in most of the water samples from borehole (deep well) satisfy the permissible level prescribed for drinking water in the two seasons in line with WHO and NSDWQ. This was not so for samples from rivers and streams in the same area.


1.1 Background Of The Study

Waste is defined as unwanted or undesired materials accumulating after the completion of a process (Cointreau, 2001). Waste is also characterized as items that are no longer used for any significant function. They are classified as items with hazardous properties. Such hazardous wastes include household dump items, sewage, sludge, waste from manufacturing industries etc. (Obeka, 2005).

The United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) Yearbook (2006) defines waste as those materials for which the initial user has no further use, either for purposes of production, transformation or consumption and can therefore be disposed of.

Adebibu (1985) grouped solid wastes into eight classes, namely domestic, municipal, industrial, agricultural, pesticides, residential and hazardous wastes. However, solid waste can be classified as biodegradable, or non-biodegradable, soluble or insoluble, organic or inorganic, toxic or non-toxic (Kostawa, 2006; Ajadike, 2007). Irrespective of the classification of solid wastes, most of the urban wastes are degradable which aids the rate of leachate formation and migration compared to non-biodegradable that can last for many years without any sign of decomposition. There is therefore a possibility of leachate generation; plume extension and migration at the base of urban land fill owing to the decomposition of discarded materials and frequent surface water ingression from urban precipitation.

Because of the inability to sort waste at source, household waste and industrial wastes including toxic waste are often handled together leading to soil and underground water pollution (Osibanjo, 2008).

Supply of adequate fresh water in large quantity to meet man’s demand and maintaining the quality is therefore a thing of concern (Elinge, Itodo, Birn, Yauri and Mobongo, 2011). Hence contamination of groundwater through the infiltration of leachates via the soil and rocks needs to be avoided.


1.2 Statement Of The Research Problem

Inadequate solid waste management is a major environmental problem in Nigeria in general and in Baba-Ode, Coca-Cola road, Ilorin in particular. The contributing factors range from technical problems, to financial and institutional constraints. There is an absence of any properly designed solid waste disposal facility in Baba-Ode, Coca-Cola road, therefore posing contamination risk to both ground and surface water. The pollutant species in the dumpsites will continue to migrate and attenuate through the soil strata and after ascertain period of time might contaminate the groundwater system if there is no action taken to prevent the phenomenon. Groundwater serves as the major source of water supply in Baba-Ode, Coca-Cola road, and its contamination is a major environmental and health concern.

Indiscriminate refuse dump affects water quality which people seem not to be aware of and public education programmes that sensitize the public on the health implications of indiscriminate refuse dump are almost non-existent. Mass media seem not to be doing enough to create awareness about implications of indiscriminate refuse dump.

This research will appraise the public health awareness of the implications of indiscriminate refuse dump in the studied area.


1.3 Aim And Objectives Of The Study

The aim of this study is to assess the effect of leachate from solid waste dumpsites on groundwater quality in Baba Ode, Coca-Cola road, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

The objectives of the project are:

  1. To identify the proximity of dumpsites to water wells in the study area;
  2. To determine the physico-chemical characteristics, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), chloride (Cl), total hardness, turbidity, sulphate (SO4)barium, colour and pH of water in wells of the study area;
  3. To assess the levels of heavy metal(iron, and barium) concentration in water from wells in the study area.

1.4 Scope Of The Study

The research work is mainly on groundwater quality of shallow wells (hand dug well) and deep wells (bore hole) within Baba-Ode, Coca-Cola road Ilorin.

The study examines the nature and characteristics of solid wastes in the area and the effects of the dumpsite on wells close to and far away from it.

Four samples were taken, two deep (borehole) wells and two shallow wells (hand dug) respectively. From the two deep wells, the first deep well (borehole) which is the reference point is 25 meters deep and the other deep well (borehole) is 30 meters, which is 21 meters away from the dumpsite.

The third sample is a hand dug well which is 6.1 meters deep (20feet) and 9 meters away from the dumpsite.

The fourth sample is also a hand dug well which is 6.7 meters deep (22 feet), 13 meters away from the dumpsite.

The volume of each sample that was taken is 5 litres so as to examine the nature and characteristics of wastes which have affected the wells close toand far away from the dumpsite in the study area.


1.5 Significance Of The Study

This research will help to highlight the relationship between the physical state of an environment and the resultant health implications of mismanaging it. This will help physical planners and health workers coordinate their activities in relation to environmental health policy issues as well as to guide stakeholders on the environment, health water resources ministries, and community based organizations with best options for public campaign towards maintaining a clean environment.

In addition, it is also hoped that the research outcome will contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the subject matter.


1.6 Geology Of The Study Area

The geologic feature of Baba-ode, Coca-Cola road is a basement complex rock. This consists of metamorphic rock, a product of at least two major cycles. Ilorin is underlain by three groups of rocks all of which belong to the pre-Cambrian basement complex of Nigeria.

These groups of rock include:

  1. Gneiss of variable composition which include granite rocks, geomantic or schist which have been thoroughly weathered of various depths and are found to form most of the superficial materials which are generally called drift.
  2. Quartz, schist or quartzite which form a narrow belt of low rounded hill and valley topography.
  3. Porphyritic granite which are characterized by inselbergs of different shapes and sizes. These are often referred to as the old granites. They cover a small area with the largest outcrop forming the Kufena group of hills (Alkali, 2009).

The drainage system of Ilorin is dendritic in pattern; the most important river is Asa River which flows in South-northern direction. Asa River occupies a fairly wide valley and goes a long way to divide Ilorin into two parts namely Eastern and Western part.


1.7 Location

Plate 1: Deep Well at (Reference Point)

Baba-Ode, Coca-Cola road, is part of Ilorin urban setting. It lies within latitude 8027’15’’N of the equator and longitude 4034’7’’E of the Greenwich meridian. The study area is located in the transitional zone within the forest and the guinea savannah regions of Nigeria at the height of about 290 meters above the sea level. Baba-Ode is located in Ilorin South local government area.


1.8 Project Organisation

The work is organized as follows: chapter one discuses the introductory part of the work, chapter two presents the literature review of the study, chapter three describes the methods applied, chapter four discusses the results of the work, chapter five summarizes the research outcomes and the recommendations.


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