Bacheriological Examination Of Idodo River

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health


Abstract


This work was aimed at assessing microbial coal of Idodo river in Enugu state Nigeria. The samples of river was obtained from the arc of low activity, and a place where human activities are very high. The samples were collected very early in the morning and afternoon. They were examined to determined the bacterial organisms that are pathogenic to man when they drink it from the samples were inoculated into media. Nutrient agar and macconkey agar media and incubate at the temperature range (350c – 370c). The following organisms were isolated. Streptococci faecalis ¬ clostridium Perfringens, Rhodococcis corphilus, Bifidobacteria, salmonella spp. The study shows that appropriate care should be taken to protect the river from being contaminated by these organisms. The quantity of pathogenic organisms collected were more in the afternoon.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Information

Natural water whether surface ground water, river, ocean or lakes contains variety of micro-organisms. The sanitary quality of drinking water is affected by both variety and number of micro-organisms. The sanitary quality of drinking water is affected by both Variety and number of micro-organisms available.

River is fit for drinking if its does not contain any micro-organism that are pathogenic to man. The WHO (1958) published the international standard for drinking water, in it water for consumption should be free from pathogenic organisms.

According to Howel (1994). He defined bacterial gience examination of river as the process of identification of bacteria organisms in the river. The bacteria organisms are pathogenic to man when they drink it. Some of the causative agents are singella dysenterae, vibro cholera, Salmonella Typhi, , Salmonella Paratyphi. Etc.


1.2 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of the study is to examine the micro-organisms in Idodo river. The specific objectives of the study are:

  1. To identify the micro-organisms in the river.
  2. To isolate the pathogenic organisms in the river.

1.3 Statement of Problems

The people that are using contaminated water are prone to different kinds of diseases. The diseases they suffered most are: dysentery, cholera, typhoid and paratyphoid. Etc. idodo river is likely to be contaminated at one time or the other due to human activities like washing, stooling, swimming etc. These activities are possible sources of pathogenic organisms when water or river is polluted it is no longer useful for human consumption and other domestic uses. Polluted river therefore is source of various kinds of health hazard.


1.4 Hypothesis

  • H.O The river contains pathogenic micro-organisms.
  • H.I The river do not contain pathogenic micro-organisms

1.5 Significance of the Study

Evaluation of micro-organisms from river sensitizing people on the beset way to dispose wastes so as to avoid communicable diseases that are caused by pathogenic organisms.
To make sure that, the river is suitable for whatever it is selected for, like domestic use, cooking and washing.


1.6 Limitation of the Study

Only Idodo river in Enugu metropolism is chosen for this work due to time constraint and financial setback.


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

This exercise shows that river has a lot of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Many of which are greater than others in number. This is why effort should be made to avoid contamination or be affected by this pathogenic organisms. It also shows that various microbes (bacteria) have different degree of affinity for different substrates e.g. the greater number shown by streptococci faecalkis salmonella spp and chostridium perfringens. These bacteria are obtained from the area where activities are going on. It shows that these organisms thrive best under this environment which favours its survival. The pathogenic organism appear most in the afternoon.


5.2 Recommendation

As far as this river is using for human consumption, appropriate law should be made by the community that are making use of this river or by government to stop people from stooling, washing inside the river, law should also be made to set operational standards for industrial waste into the river. These laws should be made to free the river from pathogenic organisms that affects the consumers. These laws should also encouraged in order to promote optimal health now and in future. The afternoon collection shows greater pathogenic organisms. Therefore the people living the area are advised to as there mostly in the morning to fetch water for their domestic uses.


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