Intention To Receive The Second Round Of Covid 19 Vaccine Among Healthcare Workers In Jalingo Metropolis
COVID-19 pandemic has remained one of the leading causes of death which claimed the lives of many well-trained and experienced healthcare professionals. Vaccination is the most effective way of controlling infectious diseases, while success is challenged by individuals and groups who choose to delay or refuse vaccines. The objective of the present study was to assess the intention of healthcare workers in Jalingo Metropolis to receive the second round of COVID-19 vaccine. Institution-based cross-sectional survey research design was used to collect quantitative data from a representative sample of healthcare workers in Jalingo Metropolis. The correctly filled questionnaires were selected and entered into SPSS software for further analysis, where frequency tables, percentages, mean, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used in the process.
The findings revealed that most (61.6%) of the research participants are willing to receive the second round of COVID-19 vaccine, and 10.3% reported that they have not decided yet. Moreover, the main reason for respondents’ lack of intention to receive the second round of COVID-19 vaccine is the belief that the first round of COVID-19 vaccine is sufficient to prevent infection (27.8%) followed by concern over the safety or side effects of the vaccine (26.6%). Above all, the healthcare workers’ intention of taking the second round of COVID-19 vaccine is signifi- cantly associated to having children (OR=0.362, P<0.05; 95% CI: 3.279–5465.189), previous interaction with someone infected by COVID-19 (OR=1.480, P<0.05; 95% CI: 3.949–0.055), the perception that COVID-19 causes a severe illness (OR=0.018, P<0.05, 95% CI: 13.489–196.391), and experience of receiving the first round of COVID-19 vaccine (OR=50431.104, P<0.01; 95% CI: 408.789–626.00).
The present study has shown that healthcare workers in Jalingo Metropolis have a goodintention of receiving the second round of COVID-19 vaccine. Nevertheless, the findings have also made it clear that there are still issues to be addressed as far as both willingness to receive the second round of the vaccine and experience of taking the first round of the vaccine are concerned. It is, therefore, important that sufficient training should be given to the healthcare workers in the area in order to raise their level of awareness and enhance their willingness to receive the second round of the vaccine.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Test of Hypotheses
- 4.4 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Reports indicate that healthcare workers across the world are facing an increasing threat as a result of confronting severe and contagious diseases, including COVID- 19, WHO (2020). Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has remained one of the leading causes of death which claimed the lives of many well-trained and experienced healthcare professionals, especially in Europe.
Many healthcare workers have died after contracting the virus while treating the patients infected by COVID-19, Lauer SA (2020). The loss of such trained manpower has enormous economic and social consequences the impact of which increases especially in developing countries such as Ethiopia where the cost of training medical personnel is relatively high. Some of the determinants of risk of disease transmission to the health- care workers include working in close proximity to a patient, risks associated to the hospital environment, the lack of consistency with safety instructions and the frequently changing directives, the attitudes and actions of the management and the perceived importance of occupational health and safety, the absence of evidence-based and practical infection control policies, and the lack of communication about safety within healthcare organizations.
Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics.8 Previous researches are full of findings that show a mix of both high and low acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination among the healthcare workers in various parts of the world. For instance, a study conducted in Democratic Republic of Congo by Nzaji KM (2020) and Saudi Arabia Qattan AMN (2021) found low acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination among healthcare workers. Moreover, Kukreti et al (2021) found that Taiwan’s healthcare workers’ and outpatients’ willingness to receive vaccination was low for both healthcare workers (23.4%) and the outpatient sample (30.7%) due to the relatively safe status of COVID-19 infection in Taiwan, where risk perception, willingness to take rapid test, and preventive COVID-19 infection behaviors were significant factors explaining the healthcare workers’ willing- ness to receive vaccination. Paudel et al (2021) found that only one-third (38.3%) of healthcare workers in Nepal are willing to be vaccinated for COVID-19. On the other hand, a study conducted among the clinical staffs of Yale Medicine and Yale New Haven Health by Roy et al13 revealed that 85% of healthcare workers were extremely likely or somewhat likely to receive the COVID-19 vac- cine. Moreover, Alvarado-Socarras et al14 found that between 77.0% and 90.7% of physicians in Colombia accept COVID-19 vaccination. According to a study undertaken by Vignier et al (2021) in French Guiana, 65.6% of respondents reported that they were willing or had already been vaccinated against COVID-19, while 24.3% of respondents reported that they did not want to get vaccinated against COVID-19, and 11.2% were unsure.
According to the health belief model, a person’s beliefs about health and health conditions play a significant role in determining his/her health-related behaviors. The key variables that determine an individual’s health behavior include perceived severity of an illness, whether the per- son thinks he is susceptible to certain ill-health conditions, perceived benefits that the person is likely to obtain as a result of engaging in a pro-health behavior, perceived barriers, information that prompts adesire to make a health change, and a person’s self-efficacy of bringing health-related change.
For instance, Jones et al (2015) found a positive effect of increased exposure to vaccination campaign on adults’ vaccination behavior. Against this backdrop, the study will examine the intention to receive the second round of covid 19 vaccine among healthcare workers in Jalingo Metropolis.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Vaccines are the most important public health measure and most effective strategy to protect the population from COVID‐19, since SARS‐CoV‐2 is highly contagious virus and affects populations widely and globally.A population-based cross-sectional e-survey conducted by Mesele (2021) found poor knowledge but a positive attitude held towards COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria. Another related study conducted in southern Nigeria revealed low acceptance (46.1%) of COVID-19 vaccine among the population most at risk of infection in the area. Similarly, Belsti et al (2021) have also come up with the finding that there is low (31.4%) acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine in the country. On the other hand, Moses et al (2022) found a relatively high (70.7%) acceptance of the vaccine among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in South-west Nigeria. Other authors have also under- taken similar studies of knowledge, attitude, and acceptability of COVID-19 vaccine among the general population and found a mix of both high and low acceptance levels of the vaccine. Recent public media sources revealed that about 1.9 million people in Nigeria have received the first round of COVID-19 vaccine. The experiences of these groups of population with the first round of vaccine, including their emotional reactions and their willingness to receive the second round of the vac- cine, have not been researched. The purpose of the present research was therefore to examine theIntention To Receive The Second Round Of Covid 19 Vaccine Among Healthcare Workers In Jalingo Metropolis.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to examine theIntention To Receive The Second Round Of COVID-19 Vaccine Among Healthcare Workers In Jalingo Metropolis. Specifically, the study aims to
- Examine the knowledge and perception of health workers in Jalingo Metropolis about coronavirus vaccine
- Evaluate the attitude of health workers in Jalingo Metropolis about coronavirus
- Investigate the Willingness to Receive the Second Round of COVID-19 Vaccine among health workers
- Examine the Factors Associated with Intention to Receive the Second Round of COVID-19 Vaccine.
1.4 Research Questions
In order to achieve the set research objectives, the study will answer the following questions
- What is the knowledge and perception of health workers in Jalingo Metropolis about coronavirus vaccine?
- What is the attitude of health workers in Jalingo Metropolis about coronavirus vaccine?
- How is the Willingness to Receive the Second Round of COVID-19 Vaccine among health workers ?
- What are the Factors Associated with Intention to Receive the Second Round of COVID-19 Vaccine?
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
The following hypothesis was tested by the study
Ho: There are no factors Associated with Intention to Receive the Second Round of COVID-19 Vaccine
Hi: There are factors Associated with Intention to Receive the Second Round of COVID-19 Vaccine
1.6 Significance of the Study
The result of the study will be relevant to the rural people, government agencies such as NCDC and as well be relevant for academic purposes. To health workers, findings from the study will aid them to see the need as well recognize that they have an important role to play in the fight to minimize misinformation in Nigeria and as well persuade the audience to take the Covid-19 vaccination. To NCDC, findings from the study will compel the immediate need for them to sponsor more radio jingles on the Covid-19 vaccine as this will help the audience to take the message more serious. Finally the study will contribute empirically to the body of Knowledge and as well serve as a reference material for student and scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in related field
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study on the Intention To Receive The Second Round Of COVID-19 Vaccine Among Healthcare Workers In Jalingo Metropolis will be based on the knowledge, perception and attitudes of health workers towards the acceptance of Corona virus second round of vaccination in Jalingo Metropolis. The study will make use of the health workers in the study area.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases.
A substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against one or several diseases, prepared from the causative agent of a disease, its products, or a synthetic substitute, treated to act as an antigen without inducing the disease.
1.10 Organization of the Study
The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.
The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
This chapter summarizes the findings on the intention to receive the second round of covid 19 vaccine among healthcare workers in Jalingo metropolis, Jalingo, Taraba State as case study.
The present study has shown that healthcare workers in Jalingo have a good intention of receiving the second round of COVID-19 vaccine. Nevertheless, the findings have also made it clear that there are still issues to be addressed as far as both willingness to receive the second round of the vaccine and experience of taking the first round of the vaccine is concerned. With the government’s very limited capacity of satisfying the vaccination demands of the population, the few doses obtained through international aid have been allocated to the healthcare workers, given their risky professional engagements. When that is done, it was with expectation that they will have all the required awareness about the vaccine and hence will be willing to receive it. The results of the present study, however, made it clear that healthcare workers hold negative attitude towards the vaccine, and more than one-third of them not only did not receive the first round of the vaccine but also do not have the intention to receive the second round of COVID-19 vaccine. Furthermore, we have also found that some of the health-care professionals believe that the first round of the COVID-19 vaccine is sufficient to prevent infection, while there are others that are still concerned about the safety or side effects of the vaccine. It is, therefore, important that sufficient training should be given to the healthcare workers in the area in order to raise their level of awareness and enhance their willingness to receive the second round of the vaccine.
Our recommendations are as follow:
- Future researchers conducting similar survey should extend the duration of the survey longer than we did to receive more responses (larger sample size) that will give a clearer picture of the knowledge, perception and readiness of Nigerians to accept the COVID-19, with respect to the socio-demographic characteristics. A correlation analysis between various criteria is highly commended.
- They should also consider using a non-web-based approach in their survey in order to accommodate participants without access to internet.
- Further study should be undertaken to explore the potential relationship between the various socio-demographic characteristics of the study participants and their willingness to participate in the COVID-19 vaccine trial.
- Using the polio vaccine as a reference point, the southerners were more receptive to vaccine and vaccination, than the northerners. Therefore, we would recommend that potential vaccine investigators should consider conducting COVID-19 vaccine trial first in the southern parts of the country, before extending it to other parts of the country.
- An aggressive campaign at the grass root to debunk the conspiracy theories surrounding COVID-19 is needed to ensure acceptance and deployment of the vaccine when it becomes available.
- The Federal Government of Nigeria should be more intentional in committing more resources (funds, manpower etc) to public health awareness programs to enlighten the masses about the benefits of receiving safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines, even before one becomes available.
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