Sanitation Practices And It’s Implication On The Health Of Undergraduate Students Of Kwara State University, Malete

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Sanitation Practices And It’s Implication On The Health Of Undergraduate Students Of Kwara State University, Malete


Abstract


This study was carried out on the the examination sanitation practices and it’s implication on the health of undergraduate students of Kwara State university, Malete. To carry out the study, 5 research objectives were posed. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The study was carried out in Kwara State university, Malete. The population of the study comprised of undergraduate students of Kwara State university, Malete. The population size of the study was 150 participants. The instrument for data collection in this study was structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using frequency Table and the hypothesis were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The study disclosed that students have the knowledge of sanitation practices in Kwara State University, Malete. The study also revealed that the students makes use of landfilled to dispose of their waste in Kwara State University, Malete. And the effectiveness of students sanitation practices have an effect on their health. Based on the findings; the research recommends that the University should provide proper sanitary facilities that would discourage indiscriminate attitudes of the students towards the environment by defecating and urinating in bushes, burning of solid waste around the university, careless dumping of solid waste on the open environment, careless littering of the environment, dumping of solid and liquid waste in drainages that block channel for surface run-off’s and liquid sewage wastes, indiscriminate burning of bushes by students for social events.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Sanitation can be seen as the policy and practice of protecting health through hygienic measures. In the view of the World Health Organization (WHO) (2007), sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. It has been realized that improving sanitation is known to have a significant impact on health both in households and across communities (WHO, 2007). Similarly, Iheke (2010), sees sanitation as the process of keeping places clean and hygienic especially by providing a sewage system and a clean water supply. Sanitation refers to all conditions that affects the health of people in a geographical area. The word sanitation operationally refers to the maintenance of hygiene conditions, through services such as garbage collection and waste water disposal so as not to endanger the health and welfare of people and also for the social and environmental effects, it may have on people. Throughout the world, an estimated 2.5 billion people lack basic sanitation (more than 35% of the world’s population) (World Health Organization & UNICEF, 2012)
Basic sanitation is described as having access to facilities for the safe disposal of human waste (faeces and urine), as well as having the ability to maintain hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection, industrial / hazardous waste management, and wastewater treatment and disposal.(World Health Organization & UNICEF, 2012).According to WHO and UNICEF (2012), without immediate acceleration in progress, the world will not achieve the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goal (MDG) sanitation target (i.e., to halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to basic sanitation by 2015). Basic Sanitation is very important in all places and environments especially schools.

School sanitation refers to hygienic practices that occur in schools. Coppens (2005) consider School Sanitation and Hygiene Education as the combination of hardware and software components that are necessary to produce a healthy school environment to develop or support safe hygiene behaviour.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the fundamental problems of student’s attitudes towards environmental sanitation is unawareness. This includes direct impacts of their negligence towards environmental sanitation and effects of improper disposal of solid waste and liquid waste.

The negative attitude of the student towards the environment does not exclude the educational institution whose problem has been aggravated by constant changes not just in curriculum content but also school subjects in primary and secondary schools. For instance, school subjects such as hygiene where students were once taught sanitation of the environment has been replaced with health education, providing little or no opportunities through which students can be taught or learn the act of waste management and sanitation.

Parents do play a huge role in to why students behave the way they do towards environmental sanitation. For instances, parents who live at highbrow areas of the country often do have a house-help who does all the domestic and environmental chores at home by leaving the student at early stage of their lives practically handicapped of the awareness towards the need of environmental sanitation which could basically start with the child •student’s responsibility towards his/her room, personal belongings and private sanitary facilities that he or she uses, knowing that the environment doesn’t end in his/her room but as well the holistic environment of which affect other lives as he/she grows of age i.e. to say negligence to his/her own environment could be another’s detriment as pollution is said to be trans boundary.

Reckless littering of the environment makes the environment unpleasant and unhealthy to inhabit of which some itinerant students’ refuse to pick their garbage after consumption in universities. Unfortunately, there is growing concern about the negative attitude of students towards the management of environmental issues in the university.

The management of environmental sanitation issues continues to be a challenge as it appears that students have not fully transferred the knowledge learnt into practice from basic health education taught in primary and secondary schools which they now imbibe as bad habit to our institutions. This is because it is assumed that students acquire sufficient knowledge from school and imitating from the educated is best. It has therefore become necessary to examine the knowledge and attitudes of students toward environmental sanitation in Kwara State University, Malete.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine sanitation practices and it’s implication on the health of undergraduate students of Kwara State University, Malete. Other objectives of this study are:

  1. To examine whether students have the knowledge of sanitation practices in Kwara State University, Malete.
  2. To determine the extent sanitation practices are carried out in Kwara State University, Malete.
  3. To determine whether the knowledge students have towards sanitation practices cuts across gender in Kwara State University, Malete.
  4. To investigate the means used by students to dispose of their waste in Kwara State University, Malete.
  5. Determine whether the effectiveness of students sanitation practices has an effect on their health.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. Do students have the knowledge of sanitation practices in Kwara State University, Malete?
  2. To what extent are sanitation practices carried out in Kwara State University, Malete?
  3. Does the knowledge students have towards sanitation practices cuts across gender in Kwara State University, Malete?
  4. What are the means used by students to dispose of their waste in Kwara State University, Malete?
  5. Does the effectiveness of students sanitation practices has an effect on their health?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

In the course of this study, the following hypotheses will be tested;

  1. H01: Students have the knowledge of sanitation practices in Kwara State University.
  2. H02: The extent of the sanitation practices carried out in Kwara State University, is low.
  3. H03: The effectiveness of students sanitation practices has no effect on their health.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This research work provides the need of keeping the University clean and effective sanitation management through the right knowledge of attitudes and behaviour in the environment. The study is relevant in creating awareness to the public about the right attitudes towards environmental sanitation within the university. Considering the rate of poor environmental sanitation and hygiene in the university as a whole, this study is bent on facilitating the realization that the right attitude and behaviour towards environmental sanitation can be achieved among students which could drive the nation as a whole into a positive environmental mindset. The study would help create awareness for the uncoordinated and uncontrolled abuse towards environmental sanitation in the university. Finally this study serves as a significant planning input in the future development of more efficient and effective attitude of students in Kwara State University, Malete towards a healthier sanitary environment.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study focuses on sanitation practices and it’s implication on the health of undergraduate students of Kwara State University, Malete. Specifically, this study focuses on examining whether students have the knowledge of sanitation practices in Kwara State University, Malete, determining the extent sanitation practices are carried out in Kwara State University, Malete, determining whether the knowledge students have towards sanitation practices cuts across gender in Kwara State University, Malete and investigating the means used by students to dispose of their waste in Kwara State University, Malete.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

Wide research of and this nature cannot be carried out without some constrains, this constrains pose a lot of limitations to this work.

Time:

Duration for the research work is relative1y short while stress emanated from other academic activities is also another constrain.

Material:

Little materials are also available because the work is relatively new. Financial constrain poses another challenges as most of information are gathered through books rather than using various sources including internet.

Financial:

Financial constrain poses another challenges as it is very difficult to travel to the research area and other necessary places.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Sanitation:

This is the arrangement to protect public health, provision of clean drinking water and the disposal of sewage


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the examination sanitation practices and it’s implication on the health of undergraduate students of Kwara State university, Malete. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was onthe examination sanitation practices and it’s implication on the health of undergraduate students of Kwara State university, Malete.The study is was specifically set to examine students have the knowledge of sanitation practices in Kwara State University, Malete, determine the extent sanitation practices are carried out in Kwara State University, Malete, determine whether the knowledge students have towards sanitation practices cuts across gender in Kwara State University, Malete, investigate the means used by students to dispose of their waste in Kwara State University, Malete, and determine whether the effectiveness of students sanitation practices has an effect on their health.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are undergraduate students of Kwara State university, Malete.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Students have the knowledge of sanitation practices in Kwara State University, Malete.
  2. The extent to which sanitation practices carried out in Kwara State University, Malete is low.
  3. The knowledge students have towards sanitation practices cuts across gender in Kwara State University, Malete.
  4. The students makes use of landfilled to dispose of their waste in Kwara State University, Malete.
  5. The effectiveness of students sanitation practices have an effect on their health.

5.4 Recommendation

The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;

  1. Efforts should be made by the government at the Federal, state and institutions management to organize seminars and workshops for students, teachers and administrators to sensitise and consciencitise them to environmental sanitation and waste problems and also its consequences on the student’s wellbeing academically and the public When stakeholders are made aware of their environment unfriendly practices/behaviour are provided with strategies to address them, they are better able to promote environment friendly practices.
  2. The introduction or integration of environmental sanitation and waste management concepts and themes through environmental education in university curriculum at all levels will not only improve student’s understanding of environmental sanitation and waste management but more likely to change their seemingly unfriendly environmental management behaviour and practices.
  3. Environmental education is an important element in raising awareness and understanding of sustainability and environmental issues within the university of which I strongly recommend that Environmental management should be a must do course for all departments in the university which would lead to changing behaviour for a more sustainable future.
  4. Environmental Management Study in the University should provide opportunities for students and teachers to engage in actions and behaviour that impact positively towards achieving a more sustainable institution environment. Private sanitation and waste collection organisation should be employed to cart away waste from the school premises. Institutional and policy framework should be put in place.
  5. This study further concludes that the Ministry of Education should set up a structure to champion education outside the classroom in primary and secondary schools so as to build up the right attitude towards environmental sanitation before they get into the university and other spheres of life.
  6. Within the Environmental Management department, a dedicated team of Environmental Management Lecturers should have responsibility for outdoor teaching across other departments in the university which would serve as a compulsory borrowed course.
  7. There should be a balanced representation between indoor and outdoor environmental awareness activities with discussion in order to expose the student in relation to his/her course to first hand learning experiences in direct contact indoor and outdoor setting, which can also foster higher understanding, permanent retentive knowledge, motivation and application to solve subsequent environmental issues and problems.
  8. Furthermore the University should provide proper sanitary facilities that would discourage indiscriminate attitudes of the students towards the environment by defecating and urinating in bushes, burning of solid waste around the university, careless dumping of solid waste on the open environment, careless littering of the environment, dumping of solid and liquid waste in drainages that block channel for surface run-off’s and liquid sewage wastes, indiscriminate burning of bushes by students for social events.
  9. Sanitary facilities such as waste dump racks at strategic places in the campus should be made available and accessible; they should as much provide an incinerating machine that would help encourage separation and managing of waste properly.

Sanitation Practices And It’s Implication On The Health Of Undergraduate Students Of Kwara State University, Malete


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