Malaria Burden And The Effectiveness Of Malaria Control Measures In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Malaria Burden And The Effectiveness Of Malaria Control Measures In Nigeria


Abstract


This study was carried out on the malaria burden and the effectiveness of malaria control measures in Nigeria. To achieve this 3 research objectives were formulated. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of all medical staff of selected hospitals in Abuja. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 65 respondents while 50 respondents were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. Respondents for this study were obtained from the medical staff of selected hospitals in Abuja. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and percentage. The result of the findings reveals that; the major causes of malaria among adults in Nigeria include; Mosquito bites, Temperature and precipitation, Malaria vectors, Pollutants, Blood Transfusion and Immune System Deficiency. And there are numerous effect of malaria on adults which depends on body system, however the most common include; anemia and jaundice, a sudden drop in blood pressure, a build-up of fluid in the lungs, acute respiratory distress syndrome, abnormally low blood sugar and acute renal failure. More so, the study disclosed that the measures for preventing the frequent prevalence of malaria among adults include; application of insect repellent to exposed skin, use of a mosquito net over the bed, spraying of insecticide or repellent in homes and spraying of pyrethrin in bedrooms. With respect to the research findings, the study recommends that non-governmental organizations (NGO) should fully participate in enlightenment campaign in the locality and cleaning of roads, gutters and drainages should be encouraged to stop the spread of malaria. Also, adults should endeavor to use insecticides in their houses to prevent the bite of mosquitoes. And they should also endeavor to use insecticides treated net to cover themselves in order to prevent mosquito bite. Additionally, adults should always keep their surroundings neat and bushes should always be clears as well as drainage systems.


Table of Content


  • TITLE PAGE
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organization of the study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Chapter Summary

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Population of the Study
  • 3.4 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.5 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.6 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.9 Validity of the Study
  • 3.10 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.11 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2. Analysis of Research Question

Chapter Five:

Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.0 Summary
  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Malaria has been the focus of multiple declarations, and a range of targets have been set since the beginning of the millennium (WHO, 2015). In Africa`s malaria endemic countries, an average of 30% of all outpatient clinic visits are for malaria (Roll Back Malaria, 2008). In these same countries, between 20% and 50% of all hospital admissions are a consequence of malaria (Roll Back Malaria Partnership, 2013). With high case-fatality rates due to late presentation, inadequate management, and unavailability or stock-outs of effective drugs, malaria is also a major contributor to deaths among hospital inpatients in Africa (Roll Back Malaria Partnership, 2013). People are at increased risk both of becoming infected with malaria and of becoming infected more frequently(Roll Back Malaria Partnership, 2013). Families live in dwellings that offer little protection against mosquitoes and are reluctant towards affording insecticide-treated nets etc (Roll Back Malaria, 2011).

The population at high risk of malaria incidence in Nigeria is estimated at 135,552,389 (WHO, 2015). The countrysโ€™ confirmed and suspected cases of Malaria incidence as at 2015, stood at 19,555,575 people (WHO, 2015), with adults accounting for over 28% of the victims. Among vectorborne diseases, the malaria is influenced by seasonal or spatial changes in the environment (Messina et al., 2011). Environmental factors such as the presence of bushes and stagnant water around homes, rainfall, low altitude and high temperatures favor the breeding of malaria vectors, as well as parasite reproduction within them (Messina et al., 2011). Malaria has,therefore, been defined as anenvironmental disease (Hay et al., 2000).The key to addressing the challenge of reducing malaria parasite prevalence is an integrated approach that combines preventative measures, such as Insecticide Treated bed Nets (ITNs), Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), improved access to effective anti-malarial drugs (Kokwaro, 2009), as well as proper environmental management. Climate has been established as an important determinant in the distribution of vectors and pathogens (Odetoyinbo, 1969). Tropical areas including Nigeria have the best combination of adequate rainfall, temperature and humidity allowing for breeding and survival of anopheles mosquitoes (Efe and Ojoh, 2013). An increase in rainfall and temperature enhances mosquito development and improved breeding sites leading to incidence of malaria (Vincent and Sunday, 2015). Rainfall provides the breeding sites for mosquitoes and increases relative humidity necessary for mosquito survival, leading to increase in the number of mosquitoes biting an individual per unit time (Lindsay and Martens, 1998). An adult mosquito`s chance of survivorship is determined by the ambient temperature, humidity and rainfall. Warmer ambient temperatures shorten the duration of the extrinsic cycle, thus increasing the chances of transmission (Jackson and Yang, 2010). Malaria pandemic alone has caught the attention of both the local authorities and international agencies. Several measures have been adopted to reduce the rate of morbidity due to malaria. It is believed that climatic parameters had changed significantly over the past two/three decades (Akinbobola and Oluleye, 2010). Hence, a deeper knowledge of environmental variables, conducive to mosquito vector life cycle, is important to target control interventions most importantly among adults. Modeling environmental variables are very valuable in defining foci of malaria transmission. The development of spatial analytical techniques has created an avenue to evaluate environmental variables that are generated by remote sensing satellite sensors and captured by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for spatial and temporal environmental analysis (Tanser and Le Sueur, 2002; Thomas et al., 2002). For an effective malaria management especially, the knowledge of adults on how and where climatic and environmental conditions favouring the development and spread of malaria vector can be of great benefit to health management agencies, thus enabling containment and treatment efforts to be focused where most needed. A detailed survey needs to be carried out on the health implications and problems of malaria especially among adults, which is the major interest of this study.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, and the mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus, Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles moucheti are the major vectors that cause year-round transmission; artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or artesunate + amodiaquine (AS + AQ) is the treatment regime adopted in 2004 [1, 7]. Notably, malaria is one of the most severe global public health problems worldwide, particularly in Africa, where Nigeria has the greatest number of malaria cases.

Major risk factors enhancing malaria prevalence and transmission among adults in Nigeria include demographic factors, environmental factors, and socioeconomic factors. Demographic factors include age and gender, while environmental factors include the presence or absence of bushes and forests which enhance mosquito breeding. Meanwhile, climatic factors include temperature, humidity, and rainfall that may support rapid growth and development of mosquito vectors. Lastly, socioeconomic factors such as education, occupation and income which can directly affect human exposure and treatment pattern. These factors have been well reported, particularly in rural and peri-urban communities in previous studies. Govoetchan and colleagues(Mark 2016), observed that malaria prevalence among adults in Nigeria was 5.5 times higher compare to young adults (youths). Hence, this study epistle aims at examining the health implications and problems of malaria among adults in Nigeria.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall and major goal of this study is to examine the Malaria Burden And The Effectiveness Of Malaria Control Measures In Nigeria.

Specifically, the study aims at;

  1. Identifying the major causes of malaria among adults in Nigeria.
  2. Identifying the effect of malaria on adults in Nigeria.
  3. Identifying the measures for preventing the frequent prevalence of malaria among adults.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will provide answers to the following questions which are significant to the research.

  1. What are the major causes of malaria among adults in Nigeria.
  2. What are the effect of malaria on adults in Nigeria?
  3. What are the measures for preventing the frequent prevalence of malaria among adults?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The study will be mostly useful to all adults in Nigeria as well as the general public as it will expose and enlighten them on the basic and general knowledge of malaria, its causes, effects and best ways to prevent is spread. More so, this study will add to the body of existing literature on the topic of concern, thus, will be useful to researchers, medical and none medical students, and other intellectuals who may wish to carry put a study on a related topic.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study is general focused on examining the malaria burden and the effectiveness of malaria control measures in Nigeria. The study will be limited to disclosing the major causes of malaria among adults in Nigeria, its effect on adults in Nigeria and its preventive measures. Hence, the study will be delimited to Amana Medical Centre Abuja, and Kelina Hospital Abuja.


1.7 Limitation of Study

There was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. More so, the findings of this study only reflects the perception of the respondents, who were staff of the selected hospitals in the study area, hence, the findings may not portray the true situation when measured against others perception.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Malaria:

Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans

Health:

A state characterized by anatomic, physiologic, and psychological integrity; ability to perform personally valued family, work, and community roles; ability to deal with physical, biological, psychological, and social stress”.

Prevalence:

This is a widespread of a situation/disease in a particular area or at a particular time.


1.9 Organizations of the study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings into the malaria burden and the effectiveness of malaria control measures in Nigeria. Respondents for this study were obtained from the medical staff of selected hospitals in Abuja. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the malaria burden and the effectiveness of malaria control measures in Nigeria. The study specifically was aimed at Identifying the major causes of malaria among adults in Nigeria, the effect of malaria on adults in Nigeria, and the measures for preventing the frequent prevalence of malaria among adults.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are activemedical staff of selected hospitals in Abuja.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The major causes of malaria among adults in Nigeria include; Mosquito bites, Temperature and precipitation, Malaria vectors, Pollutants, Blood Transfusion and Immune System Deficiency.
  2. There are numerous effect of malaria on adults which depends on body system, however the most common include; anemia and jaundice, a sudden drop in blood pressure, a build-up of fluid in the lungs, acute respiratory distress syndrome, abnormally low blood sugar and acute renal failure.
  3. The measures for preventing the frequent prevalence of malaria among adults include; application of insect repellent to exposed skin, use of a mosquito net over the bed, spraying of insecticide or repellent in homes and spraying of pyrethrin in bedrooms.

5.3 Recommendations

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher recommended that;

  1. Non-governmental organizations (NGO) should fully participate in enlightenment campaign in the locality and cleaning of roads, gutters and drainages should be encouraged to stop the spread of malaria.
  2. Adults should endeavor to use insecticides in their houses to prevent the bite of mosquitoes.
  3. They should also endeavor to use insecticides treated net to cover themselves in order to prevent mosquito bite.
  4. Adults should always keep their surroundings neat and bushes should always be clears as well as drainage systems.

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