Perception And Utilization Of Sanitary Facilities Among Student
This study was carried out to examine the attitude and perception of sanitary facilities among female students in federal college of education Yola Adamawa State. Specifically, the study aims tofind out the type of attitude female students display in the sanitary facilities, examine the perception of female students concerning waste management and investigate method with which female students dispose menstrual waste. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 141 responses were validated from the survey. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed thatfemale students does have the right attitude towards sanitary facilities. The study thereby recommendsthat the school management should collaborate with the Adamawa State Health Service to train both parents and teachers on proper menstrual hygiene management. This can be done through the involvement of parents and teachers associations in the school.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Menstrual hygiene management is described as the process whereby “women and adolescent girls use a clean menstrual hygiene management (MHM) material to absorb or collect blood that can be changed in privacy as often as necessary for the duration of the menstruation period, using soap and water for washing their bodies as required and having access to facilities to dispose of used menstrual management material” (UNICEF, WHO 2014). Schools are potentially important settings in relation to MHM. Lack of appropriate facilities such as gender segregated improved toilet facilities, adequate safe water supply in schools for washing hands and soiled clothes, facility for drying of clothes and absence of sanitary menstrual materials can prevent girls from safe hygienic management of their menstruation. These may result to absenteeism, reduced level of concentration in class, low participation in outside school activities like sports and school clean-up. (Sommer and Sahin 2013) There is a global evidence of lack of adequate guidance, facilities and materials for girls to manage their menstruation in school. These neglected public health, social and educational issues require prioritization, coordination and investment (Sommer,2016). In Nigeria, especially among schoolgirls and women, there is a ‘culture of silence’ and shame regarding issues of sexuality and menstruation that are attributed to cultural restrictions. These prevent sufficient information from reaching girls and women. (Onyegegbu, 2014). Studies in Nigeria by Aniebue (2009) reported that mothers do not educate their daughters about the onset of menstruation, its duration, or healthy practices. Girls often seek information from their peers, friends, or siblings who relay superstitions and incorrect information which leads to fear and anxiety among the girls. Aluko described the consequences attached to this biological phenomenon as unfair and unjust. (Aluko, 2014) Multiple research findings to date in Nigeria have demonstrated varying perceptions, beliefs, knowledge, attitudes and practices related to MHM. There is the belief that menstruation is an unclean and secret issue which should not be discussed. In some communities/areas menstruating women do not cook for their husbands especially those who are traditionalists. They are not permitted to collect water from the public ponds especially traditional sources. They are not allowed to perform certain religious rites.(UNICEF, GHARF Report2008). Furthermore, research finding showed that girls’ capacity to manage their periods is affected by lack of access to affordable hygienic sanitary materials disposal options for used materials, adequate water supply, clean toilets, hand washing facilities and access to changing rooms. If these facilities are not always available in school, it exposes many girls to manage their periods with great discomfort and in unhygienic conditions. (Olukanni, 2013).There are gaps in the literature regarding variation in knowledge, attitudes and practices of MHM. This study aims to understand the attitude and perception of sanitary facilities among female students in federal college of education Yola Adamawa stat.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Regarding attitude towards menstruation, studies show that about half of adolescent girls have a positive attitude towards menstrual hygiene management (Yadav et al., 2017). In India for example, menstruating adolescent girls experience religious restrictions with a quarter (24%) of them missing school during periods (Van Eijk et al., 2016). In Uganda, findings by (Miiro et al., 2018) suggest nearly a fifth of adolescent female students missed school due to pains associated with menstruation. Additionally, menstruation is considered a curse, disease or sin by adolescent girls in Uganda (Boosey et al., 2014). Prior to receiving health education at school, 72.4% of girls in India considered menstrual blood impure ( Nemade et al., 2009). Adolescent girls also refrained from household work including cooking or performing religious activities during menstruation. In developing countries, absenteeism in schools due to menstruation range from 2% of urban-adolescents in Nigeria to 61.7% of their rural counterparts in Uganda (Chandra-Mouli & Patel, 2017). Early menarche is associated with early sexual initiation, early pregnancy, early marriage and some sexually transmitted infections among adolescent girls in low and middle-income countries (Ibitoye et al., 2017). Among adolescent female students in Bangladesh, discomfort at school during menstruation, restriction from performing any activity during menstruationand perception that menstrual problems interfered with school performance were associated with absenteeism (Alam et al., 2017). Therefore, this study examines the attitude and perception of sanitary facilities among female students in federal college of education Yola Adamawa state
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general objective of the study is to examine perception and utilization of sanitary facilities among student in federal college of education Yola Adamawa state.
The specific objective is as follows:
- To find out the type of attitude female students display in the sanitary facilities.
- To examine the perception of female students concerning waste management
- To investigate method with which female students dispose menstrual waste.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions have been prepared for the study
- What are the type of attitude female students display in the sanitary facilities?
- What is the perception of female students concerning waste management?
- What are method with which female students dispose menstrual waste?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis have been formulated for the study
- H0: female students do not have the right attitude towards sanitary facilities
- HA: female students does have the right attitude towards sanitary facilities
1.6 Significance of the Study
School management board: this study will be of benefit to the school management board as it will expose them to the need of providing the necessary equipment that will be used to dispose waste materials. They will also be exposed to the need of training staff on the appropriate way to dispose off waste materials.
This study is significant to government as it will propel hem to strengthen the appropriate agencies responsible for over seeing the appropriate disposal of menstrual waste.
This study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature on hospital waste management.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will find out the type of attitude female students display in the sanitary facilities. The study will also examine the perception of female students concerning waste management. Lastly, the study will investigate method with which female students dispose menstrual waste. Hence, this study is delimited to federal college of education Yola Adamawa State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work
1.9 Definition of Terms
Facts, information, and skills acquired through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject
The actual application or use of an idea, belief, or method, as opposed to theories relating to it
Collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
In this study, our focus was on the perception and utilization of sanitary facilities among student in federal college of education Yola Adamawa state .The study specifically was aimed at highlighting the kind of attitude female students display in the sanitary facilities, examine the perception of female students concerning waste management and investigate method with which female students dispose menstrual waste. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from students from federal college of education.
Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:
- Female students display a positive attitude in the sanitary facilities
- The perception of female students concerning waste management is that it can pose serious health risks, can spread infections and future infertility and birth complications.
- The method with which female students dispose menstrual waste is Incineration, composting and deep burial
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- That the school management should collaborate with the Adamawa State Health Service to train both parents and teachers on proper menstrual hygiene management. This can be done through the involvement of parents and teachers associations in the various schools.
- That the school management collaborate with the National Commission for Civic Education to sensitize the communities to change the negative socio-cultural norms and practices that stigmatize menstruation.
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