Prevalence Of Water Borne Diseases And It’s Implications On The Health Status Of Inhabitants Of Adogi Community

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Prevalence Of Water Borne Diseases And It’s Implications On The Health Status Of Inhabitants Of Adogi Community


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the prevalence of water borne diseases and it’s implications on the health status of inhabitants of Adogi Community in Nasarawa State. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community, assess the the causes of water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community, assess the illnesses caused by water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community, and ascertain the constraints encountered in the prevention of waterborne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of Adogi Community, Nasarawa State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that the illnesses caused by water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community? Includes: Cholera, Malaria, Diarrhoea, dysentery, typhoid. Therefore, it is recommended that the effectiveness of point of use household water treatment and storage should be prioritised by educating the population on the importance of a multi-barrier water treatment approach which uses combinations of technologies and the use of tested and improved water storage containers approved by Centre for Disease and Control.To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Water borne illness is caused by various bacteria, virus, protozoa and pathogenic microorganisms and usually occurs as a result of poorly treated drinking water and wastewater or a natural disaster, like flooding and environmental pollutants.

Nigeria is one of the countries in the world that has unsafe water supplies due to the uncoordinated efforts of various federal, state and local agencies. Given the low quality of drinking water in Nigeria, most Nigerians will usually contract a waterborne illness. Nevertheless, when pollutants find their way into drinking water sources and are not eliminated by water treatment processes, it can and does make people sick. This can be attributed to lack of sanitation system, pipe breaks, leaks, ground water contamination campgrounds where human and wildlife use same source of water.

According to [1], inadequate sanitation facilities can lead to spread of diseases through rodents, flies, and other animals. Both the ground and surface water supplies can be contaminated. Meanwhile, the safe drinking water act has been regularly amended resulting in regulations to ensure against previously unknown or unrecognized pathogens and toxic substances [4]. The total coliform rule requires a maximum concentration of zero for total coliform, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli, which is much more stringent than the original coliform rule [5]. Also, the Lead Contamination Control Act contains requirements for special surveillance of water in distribution systems and a ban on lead solders, flux, and pipe in public systems [4]. In the same vein, the Surface Water Treatment Rule require filtration followed by chemical disinfection to ensure removal of Giardia and Cryptosporidium protozoa and enteric viruses from surface water supplies and groundwater under the influence of surface water [6].

According to WHO (2014) [1], every year more than 3.4 million people die as a result of water-related diseases, making it the leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Most of the victims are young children, the vast majority of whom die of illnesses caused by organisms that thrive in water sources contaminated by raw sewage. A report published recently in the medical journal The Lancet, (2005) concluded that poor water sanitation and lack of safe drinking water take a greater human toll than war, terrorism and weapons of mass destruction combined. Among the main problems which are responsible for this situation were; Lack of priority given to the sector; Lack of financial resources; and Lack of water supply and sanitation services; Poor hygiene behaviors and inadequate sanitation in public places including hospitals, health centers and schools providing access to sufficient quantities of safe water. The provision of facilities for sanitary disposal of excreta and introducing sound hygiene behaviors, are of capital importance to reduce the burden of disease caused by these risk factors.

Access to safe water supply has indeed become a nightmare in Nigeria, about 90 million people are without access to safe drinking water and 130,000 under five Nigerian children die annually from preventable waterborne diseases. Some states in Nigeria are predominantly rural states with over 65% of the population living in rural areas. The greatest problem facing responsible government and non-governmental organizations is how to improve the quality of life of the rural population [7].


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Water borne diseases occurrence was observed to follow a seasonal pattern with peaks occurring between the months of January and May followed by drops between June and October and rose again in November. Children below 5 years were found to be more vulnerable to diarrhea of viral origin, gastro-enteritis and amoebic dysentery while persons between 15-44 years were more vulnerable to typhoid and cholera [2] as a result of water borne diseases.

In the developing countries four-fifth of all the illnesses are caused by water-borne diseases with diarrhea leading to dehydration being the leading cause of childhood death. An estimated 246.7 million people worldwide are infected with schistosomiasis and of this; 20 million suffer severe consequences of the infection while 120 million suffer neither symptom. An estimated 80% of the transmission takes place in Africa south of the Sahara.

Lack of access to portable water, absence of sanitation facilities and environmental factors could be advanced as the probable causes of water borne diseases spread in rural communities in Nigeria. More so, the lack of trained personnel to carryout health education on its prevention is another problem. This is because communities lack educators to educate them on the dangers of water borne diseases there by influencing the health status of the people [4]. Besides, another problem faced in the developing countries specifically Nigeria is that of lack of water project schemes; since most communities do not have water projects they turn to use water from doubtful sources there by increasing the rate of water borne diseases in Africa [5].

Furthermore, poor hand washing method is another problem faced in the prevention of water borne diseases. People tend to transmit infection from one another through the faeco-oral route as they do not master the appropriate method of hand washing after visiting the toilet [3]. The community water catchment site are not fenced rendering easy access by stray animals that ended up contaminating sources of water supply. This was the main source of motivation for the researcher to carry out research on the prevalence of water borne diseases and it’s implications on the health status of inhabitants of Adogi Community.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine prevalence of water borne diseases and it’s implications on the health status of inhabitants of Adogi Community. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Determine the prevalence of water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community.
  2. Assess the the causes of water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community.
  3. Assess the illnesses caused by water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community.
  4. Ascertain the constraints encountered in the prevention of waterborne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the prevalence of water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community?
  2. What are the causes of water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community?
  3. What are the illnesses caused by water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community?
  4. What are the constraints encountered in the prevention of waterborne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: There is no high prevalence of water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community.
  • Ha: There is a high prevalence of water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community.

1.6 Significance of the Study

In Nigeria, accessibility to improved water supply remains a major concern. Despite its good level of per capita water availability, only few of the population have drinking water within the residence. Among other factors, the high rate of population growth tends to contribute to the increase of water needs and thus reduces the level of access to safe water.

Understanding the problem of attaining clean and safe water that contributes to incidence of waterborne diseases is important for several reasons. First, understanding the link between unsafe water and diseases can help promoting preventive attitudes and practices among water users. Second, the findings were useful to water providers for planning, management and evaluation of water supply services. Third, the information was helpful to health systems plan intervention strategies to curb the problem of waterborne diseases. Fourth, the study provided opportunities for future studies to fill in the gaps that this study could not address. Fifth, these studies added to the existing body of knowledge on water related diseases and play a vital role in providing people with information on public health. Finally, this study highlighted the problem of attaining safe water, and then developed and made recommendation to policy and decision makers on how best the water supply can be improved.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally assess the prevalence of water borne diseases and it’s implications on the health status of inhabitants of Adogi Community. The respondents for the study will comprise of residents of Adogi Community.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Waterborne Disease

Waterborne disease is a disease caused by the ingestion of water contaminated by human or animal feces or urine containing pathogenic bacteria or viruses.

Drinking Water

Drinking water is water used for domestic purposes such as drinking, cooking and personal hygiene.

Access to Water

In urban areas a distance of not more than 200 meters from a home to a public water source.

Clean Water

Clean Water is water which is pure enough to be consumed or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm.

Safe Water

Safe water is water that does not contain biological or chemical agents directly detrimental to health. It includes treated surface water and untreated but uncontaminated water from protected springs, boreholes.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the prevalence of water borne diseases and it’s implications on the health status of inhabitants of Adogi Community in Nasarawa State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the prevalence of water borne diseases and it’s implications on the health status of inhabitants of Adogi Community in Nasarawa State. The study specifically was aimed to determine the prevalence of water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community, assess the the causes of water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community, assess the illnesses caused by water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community, and ascertain the constraints encountered in the prevention of waterborne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are residents of Adogi Community, Nasarawa State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The prevalence of water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community is high.
  2. The causes of water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community includes: Drinking water from doubtful sources, Drinking unclean water, and waterborne pathogens.
  3. The illnesses caused by water borne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community? Includes: Cholera, Malaria, Diarrhoea, dysentery, typhoid.
  4. The constraints encountered in the prevention of waterborne diseases among inhabitants of Adogi Community includes: poor income level, inaccessibility of clean water sources, and lack of adequate health education.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Provision of safe, consistent, and easily accessible potable water sources that will improve the general welfare of Adogi Community and reduce the risk of waterborne diseases.
  2. The effectiveness of point of use household water treatment and storage should be prioritised by educating the population on the importance of a multi-barrier water treatment approach which uses combinations of technologies and the use of tested and improved water storage containers approved by Centre for Disease and Control.
  3. Agencies that oversee public hygiene and health issues in the urban centres should provide and enforce management guidelines for household water choices and sanitation level.
  4. Lastly, government should give closer attention to urban water supply, sanitation, and hygiene policy. Ensuring that appropriate measures are taken to improve access to safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene in the state. Since the availability of both potable water and adequate sanitation has potential to prevent at least 9.1% of the global disease burden and 6.3% of all deaths.

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