The Impact Of Covid 19 Vaccine On Human Health

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

The Impact Of Covid 19 Vaccine On Human Health


Abstract


This study was carried out on the impact of covid 19 vaccine on human health using Okene Local Government, Kogi State as a case study. The study was specifically aimed to examine the level of covid-19 vaccination coverage in Okene Local Government, Kogi State, investigate the level of residents knowledge on covid-19 vaccine in Okene Local Government, Kogi State, ascertain whether Covid-19 vaccine help to prevent human health from being vulnerable to the covid-19 virus in Okene Local Government, Kogi State and investigate the level of efficacy and efficiency of Covid 19 vaccine in containing the spread of the virus. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of residents of Okene Local Government, Kogi State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 100 respondents and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the level of residents knowledge on covid-19 vaccine in Okene Local Government, Kogi State low. Furthermore, the study revealed that Covid-19 vaccine help to prevent human health from being vulnerable to the covid-19 virus in Okene Local Government, Kogi State. Therefore, it is recommended that news and program content need to be carefully sourced and tailored to ensure that listeners in cities and at the grassroots, receive updated and accurate information about COVID-19 Vaccine as this can persuade or affect their choice of taking the vaccination and more so comply to the safety preventive measures. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The Covid-19 pandemic, which had a severe global impact, spurred the need for mitigation strategies to control the pandemic. The Corona virus illness (SARS-CoV-2) is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 virus initially appeared in late 2019 in Wuhan (Hubei, China) and quickly became a global threat affecting nations worldwide. As of the 22nd of December, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in about 76.2 million illnesses and over 1.6 million fatalities globally (Sarah M. 2020). Most nations across the globe use non-pharmaceutical treatments (NPIs) to prevent disease transmission, such as enforcing mask policies, hand cleanliness, social distance, travel restrictions, school closures, and partial or total lockdowns. So far, NPIs have been able to halt the course of the disease, but the most promising method for containing the pandemic and offering hope for lower death and morbidity rates remains within medical technology’s capabilities. Antiviral medicines and vaccinations are examples of such medical technology. They are effective, safe, and inexpensive [1].
A vaccine is a biological preparation that induces active acquired immunity against a specific infectious illness. A vaccination usually comprises an agent that looks like a disease-causing bacterium and is frequently produced from weakened or dead versions of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. Vaccines are one of the most dependable and cost-effective public health treatments ever developed, saving millions of lives each year [2].

Following the deciphering of the genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 in early 2020 and the declaration of the pandemic by WHO in March 2020, scientists and pharmaceutical companies were racing against time in efforts to develop vaccines. As of October 2020, at least 85 vaccines were under preclinical development in animals, and 63 were in clinical development in humans, with 43 in phase I, 21 in phase II, and 18 in phase III. 6 were authorized for early or limited use in late September 2020, 2 were approved for full use, and one vaccine was abandoned. Remdesivir was authorized as an emergency use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in November 2020 for extremely sick hospitalized COVID-19 patients. However, the WHO advised against its use on November 22, 2020, and later that month, Pfizer-(BNT162b2) BioNTech’s and Moderna’s (mRNA-1273) mRNA vaccines were authorized for use internationally [3].

Although vaccination is one of the most successful public health interventions and a cornerstone for the prevention of communicable infectious diseases, to ensure progress on Covid-19 vaccination, public acceptance is required to maintain herd immunity, prevent outbreaks of vaccine illnesses, and ensure individuals do not hesitate to adopt novel vaccines. While the development of COVID-19 vaccines has been an extraordinary success, vaccinating most of the global population is an enormous challenge, one for which gaining and maintaining public trust in COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination will be as essential as the effectiveness of the vaccines themselves[4].


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Across countries, the real world effectiveness of the covid-19 vaccines has largely been consistent with estimates of efficacy observed in clinical trials. In addition to the individual level effect on disease risk and progression, vaccines may also have secondary benefits of slowing spread and reducing onward transmission and its associated morbidity and mortality[5].

Significantly, in recent times, public health promotion is inevitable to increase the coverage rate of these vaccines. Although vaccination is a continuous necessity of concern to public health promotions, especially regarding citizens´ willingness, perceptions, and attitudes to receive newly developed vaccines such as the COVID-19 vaccine, specialists believe the COVID-19 vaccine is required to properly contain the pandemic.According to Acerbi(2019) when comparing the advantages and disadvantages of mRNA vaccines, vaccination has been commonly recommended. As the COVID-19 pandemic becomes better controlled, vaccine sequelae are likely to become more apparent. Adelana [6] on the other hand hypothesized that there will be an increase in cardiovascular diseases, especially acute coronary syndromes, caused by the spike proteins in genetic vaccines. Besides the risk of infections owing to lowered immune functions, there is a possible risk of unknown organ damage caused by the vaccine that has remained hidden without apparent clinical presentations, mainly in the circulatory system [7].

Although Previous studies on readiness to receive COVID-19 vaccines have outlined such factors as beliefs about the threat of the disease, fears about vaccine safety, incorrect health beliefs, and physicians´ recommendations, Studies on the impact of Covid 19 vaccine on human healthhave been limited. Against the backdrop, the research seeks to investigate impact of Covid 19 vaccine on human health


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is focused on the impact of Covid 19 vaccine on human health. Other specific objectives includes:

  1. To examine the level of covid-19 vaccination coverage in Okene Local Government, Kogi State.
  2. To investigate the level of residents knowledge on covid-19 vaccine in Okene Local Government, Kogi State.
  3. To ascertain whether Covid-19 vaccine help to prevent human health from being vulnerable to the covid-19 virus
  4. Okene Local Government, Kogi State
  5. To investigate the level of efficacy and efficiency of Covid 19 vaccine in containing the spread of the virus.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the level of covid-19 vaccination coverage in Okene Local Government, Kogi State?
  2. What is the level of residents knowledge on covid-19 vaccine in Okene Local Government, Kogi State?
  3. Does Covid-19 vaccine help to prevent human health from being vulnerable to the covid-19 virus in Okene Local Government, Kogi State?
  4. What is the level of efficacy and efficiency of Covid 19 vaccine in containing the spread of the virus?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Ho: Covid-19 vaccine has no significance impact on human health.

Ha: Covid-19 vaccine has a significance impact on human health.


1.5 Significance of the Study

The result of the study will be relevant to the rural people, media, government agencies such as NCDC and as well be relevant for academic purposes. To media personnel, findings from the study will aid them to see the need as well recognize that they have an important role to play in the fight to minimize misinformation in Nigeria and as well persuade the audience to take the Covid-19 vaccination.Thus News and program content need to be carefully sourced and tailored to ensure that listeners in cities and at the grass roots, receive updated and accurate information about COVID-19 vaccination.To NCDC, findings from the study will compel the immediate need for them to sponsor more awareness on the Covid-19 vaccine as this will help the audience to take the message more serious. Finally the study will contribute empirically to the body of Knowledge and as well serve as a reference material for student and scholars who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the impact of Covid 19 vaccine on human health. The study further discussed the level of resident knowledge on covid-19 vaccine and as well investigate the level of efficacy and efficiency of Covid 19 vaccine in containing the spread of the virus. The study is however delimited to Okene Local Government, Kogi State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Impact:

A marked effect or influence

Acceptance:

The action of consenting to receive or undertake something offered.

Vaccine:

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the impact of covid 19 vaccine on human health using Okene Local Government, Kogi State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the impact of covid 19 vaccine on human health using Okene Local Government, Kogi State as a case study. The studyspecifically was aimed at toexamine the level of covid-19 vaccination coverage in Okene Local Government, Kogi State, investigate the level of residents knowledge on covid-19 vaccine in Okene Local Government, Kogi State, ascertain whether Covid-19 vaccine help to prevent human health from being vulnerable to the covid-19 virus in Okene Local Government, Kogi State and investigate the level of efficacy and efficiency of Covid 19 vaccine in containing the spread of the virus.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents areresidents of Okene Local Government, Kogi State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The level of covid-19 vaccination coverage in Okene Local Government, Kogi State is low.
  2. The level of residents knowledge on covid-19 vaccine in Okene Local Government, Kogi State low.
  3. Covid-19 vaccine help to prevent human health from being vulnerable to the covid-19 virus in Okene Local Government, Kogi State.
  4. The level of efficacy and efficiency of Covid 19 vaccine in containing the spread of the virus is high.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. News and program content need to be carefully sourced and tailored to ensure that listeners in cities and at the grassroots, receive updated and accurate information about COVID-19 Vaccine as this can persuade or affect their choice of taking the vaccination and more so comply to the safety preventive measures.
  2. Government and private sector support are also necessary for radio to function effectively in Africa. Sadly, many radio stations are underfunded.
  3. Policy makers and Government should ensure they build the confidence and trust of the masses toward accepting the novel vaccine and as well ensure that government provides it in large quantity to reach the rural dweller.
  4. Civic societies should endeavor to collaborate with knowledgeable healthcare workers to go on outreach and enlighten the masses on the need to take the vaccine.

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