Role Of Science Technology And Innovation In Education As A Tool For Increased Productivity And Sustainable Development

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Role Of Science Technology And Innovation In Education As A Tool For Increased Productivity And Sustainable Development


Abstract


This paper aims to examine the role of science, technology and innovation in education as a tool for increased productivity and sustainable development in Nigeria. This is a review of the existing empirical literature on Role Of Science Technology And Innovation In Education As A Tool For Increased Productivity and Sustainable Development. The review is mainly on technovation researches conducted around the world between 2005 and now. Case studies which illustrate how innovation occurs from business and technical standpoints are also included, together with reviews and analyses of governmental and industrial policy which inhibit or stimulate technological innovation. The findings of this study will be of great relevance to the federal government of Nigerian, research institutions and the private sector.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Technical Innovation means developing new ideas, products, services, and processes which exploit technology. It may be driven by a new technology (How can we use this?) or by needs (What technology might we apply to improve this?). At its best, technovation creates valuable products and services no one has yet asked for or creates “disruptive” change (major leaps in the way things are done). Every year technology challenges all over the world to build a mobile application that will address a community problem. Since 2010, over 28 countries have submitted to Technology and Innovation (Technovation), this makes global changes around the world. Technology (from two Greek words: téchnē and logos) means the ability of humans to create things using hands and/or machines . It is the application of knowledge to the practical aims of human life or to changing and manipulating the human environment . Technology includes the use of materials, tools, techniques, and sources of power to make life bearable or more pleasant and work more productive. Whereas science is concerned with how and why things happen, technology focuses on making things happen. Technology can be internal or external.

In the external view, technology means the systematic discourse about practical art. Technology is the science about practical art just as entomology is the science about insects and geology about planet Earth. Here “logos” belongs to scholars who take practical art and artists as their topics of investigation but is foreign to and not a part of the art or artists. It neglects the cognitive ability of the artists and concentrates on their products and social status . The internal view inherits the Greek notion of téchnē containing its own logos, so that technology means the systematic reasoning of practical art itself. In this view, art and reasoning are inseparable entities that later enter into a marriage. They are intertwined cognitive potentials inherent in every human being, because living in, coping with, and modifying the real world is primordial to all human life. Technology is the explicit rendition of reasoning inherent in practical art; the systematic abstraction of essentials; the articulation, generalization, refinement, and development of knowledge involved in productive and creative activities.

Technovation’s success in changing world’ attitudes about technology and Innovation rely on local country Products. Together, they come up with a creativity idea, conduct user research, create a business plan, and build the world of Innovation. Countries that lead from the technology and business Innovation help other countries that are less Technology to learn from them and hence it reaches many area of the world. Science Technology
Technological change, particularly in developing countries, is not only about innovating at the frontier, but also about adapting existing products and processes to achieve higher levels of productivity as applicable to their local contexts . In this process, the ability of local firms and enterprises to access technological know – how is fundamental to shaping their ability to provide products and services, both of the kind that are essential to improve living standards, and that could also promote growth and competitiveness . Science Technology
However, the changes include technological trends and breakthroughs which will support innovation, availability of capital for new product development and introduction, displacement of existing products, management of entrepreneurial ventures, management of innovation in medium–sized and large organizations, organizational structures intended to facilitate innovation, investment strategies related to new science – or technology–based enterprises, the innovator as an individual and as a personality type, and technology transfer to developing nations.

Case studies which illustrate how innovation occurs from business and technical standpoints are also included, together with reviews and analyses of governmental and industrial policy which inhibit or stimulate technological innovation. Science Technology

The overall aim of this report is to provide a conceptual foundation for co-ordinated international efforts to advance the science, technology, and innovation needed for achieving the goals of sustainable development. A great deal of highly relevant and valuable R&D work is already being carried out by individuals and groups around the world. What is needed in addition however, is a concerted effort to identify, promote, and support priority R&D needs that are not being adequately addressed. Science Technology

The empirical evidence on ongoing south – south exchange shows that the surge of economic growth in developing countries, particularly emerging countries, has been made possible in large part by their growing technological capabilities. This is reflected in the increase in their capital goods imports in recent times . Although capital goods imports by developing countries are growing, and are considered to be an indication of technological leaning, the trends show that a large share of the capital goods exported and imported is concentrated in a sub-set of developing countries. These are countries that have some level of technological capabilities to integrate into GPNs, and their level of economic growth enables them to import capital goods . On the other hand, a large number of developing countries, particularly LCDs, are not major importers or exporters of capital goods. Science Technology

There is no doubt about the potential of rapid technological progress to help the world meet the defining challenges of our time. Yet many individuals in the developing world, access are still a major challenge, hindering their ability to learn how to use technologies that would improve their lives and promote enterprise development. That challenge is multiplied many times over for national policymakers seeking to use technologies to address energy poverty, food insecurity, environmental threats and job creation. The increasing of daily new Technology in developed countries are a signals of the beginning of new era in developing country and in global development. If we are to build on and expand the progress that has been made towards the Millennium Development Goals, the international community will need to find innovative way of closing this gap.


1.2 Statement of the Problems

Research and Development in Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) activities has not been given a serious attention by Nigeria government. The poor devotion of government expenditure to R&D can be attributed to abundant of natural resources in the country. Nigeria shifted from agrarian economy in the 1960s to the current petroleum economy. Petroleum accounted for approximately 97% of the country’s foreign exchange and 76% of the total government revenue (CBN, 2010). This has prevented the country from engaging in R&D exploitation believing that the revenue of the petroleum products is sufficient for the government.

The country’s R&D allocation is US$ 0.582 Billion (PPP) in 2007 which is approximately 0.0004% of the World’s expenditure on R&D as at 2011. This figure represents 0.2% of R&D expenditure as percentage of the national GDP (AIO, 2010). The country was ranked 127th out of 139 countries assessed in the 2011 Global Competitiveness Report and has no university in the world’s top 500. These figures are relatively insignificant when compared with the R&D expenditure profiles of the advanced countries of America, Europe and some parts of Asia as shown above. Consequently, the national R&D capabilities have been undermined by underfunding.

For Nigeria to achieve macroeconomic development and assume its rightful position among the committee of emerging economies, it needs to reorder its priorities by committing more funds to R&D activities to meet UNESCO standards of having at least 1% of GDP committed to R&D as well as creating a National R&D Fund (Siyanbola, 2011). South Africa spends 8.5 times more on R&D than Africa’s most populous country, Nigeria. As a result of few or no R&D activities in the business sector in Nigeria, it is assumed that government and higher education sector performed 35.1% and 64.9% of the national R&D respectively (AIO, 2010). Also, government provides funds up to the 96.4% for national R&D while the business sector and higher education only provides 0.2% and 0.1% respectively.

Applied and basic researches constitute the large proportion of the R&D activities in Nigeria. This also implies most of the inventions carried out in the academic laboratories and research institutes have not been patented and commercialised for industrial usage for onward transfer into the market.

As a result of the weaknesses and constraints that the Science and Technology policy suffers, Nigeria government through the Ministry of Science and Technology has developed a more concise, robust and workable Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) policy which is expected to respond to the dictates of globalization, changing business environment and new/emerging technologies and thus provide for effective funding of R&D.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study is to examine Role Of Science Technology And Innovation In Education As A Tool For Increased Productivity And Sustainable Development


1.4 Significant / Justification of the Study

The findings of this study will be of great relevance to the federal government of Nigerian, research institutions and the private sector.

Again, the researcher on this area will find the work very useful because it will go a long way as a good source of information for any person who may like embark on a similar study.


1.5 Limitations of the Study

In the process of carrying out this study, the researcher encountered some problems which militated against the research project and also the major constraint of the research.

The slow time frame did not allow for proper coverage of a wide area. Finance is another factor. The money needed for gathering information from secondary source was not sufficient


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

Technology in developing countries is challenged by the lack of deep pockets (Capital), by the nature of their organization still being innovative and by being in a rapidly changing environment. For a successful management of technologies under these circumstances, a management system has to be compact, flexible and adaptable. The Pocket concept (Pocket Technology Management or technology and innovation management) aims at supporting according to their entrepreneurial needs, possibilities and opportunities.

To compete with larger competitors, New Technology-Based Firms (NTBFs) must develop advantages of flexibility and speed of response. In order to capitalize on these advantages, NTBFs require a technology and innovation management approach that enhances the NTBFs’ competitive advantages in tens of entrepreneurial organizations, short communication paths and intelligent decisions mechanisms. However, virtually all the research on technology and innovation management has taken Place in large firms, therefore in another context.

Technological innovation plays an important role across the full range of issues described in the previous sections, and is highlighted here because of its critical relevance to both short and long-term economic, societal, and environmental sustainability. Technological innovation can be seen as a double-edged sword with respect to sustainable development. There is no doubt that much of the improvement in human welfare over the past century can be accounted for by technological innovations in areas such as public health and agriculture. But at the same time, many of the world’s critical sustainability problems are unintended consequences of technological developments, especially those aimed at increasing production and extraction of natural resources.

When a format or procedure has existed for decades without achieving its set goals, the first and logical step to finding a solution is what has made it not to function. With all modesty, it can be said that this paper has done justice to that by examining the issues that has hindered effective harnessing of science, technology and innovation (STI) for sustainable industrial and economic development in Nigeria. Indeed, science and technological innovation is the bridge that will lead one to sustainable industrial and economic development. By so doing, contribute in reversing the orthodoxy that Nigeria is rich but Nigerians are poor. In this country, we need the right technology for effective utilization of our abundant natural resources. It is therefore, a desire that this paper will spur intellectual discourse that would engender a paradigm shift for the development and sustenance of technological driven economy, bearing in mind that the real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.


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