Examination Of Incidence Of Malaria Infestation Caused By Different Species Of Plasmodium (A Case Study Of Parklane Hospital Enugu)
The incidence of the infestation of plasmodium species (P.Falciparum, P. Vivax, P.Ovale, and P. alaria) which causes human malaria in Enugu metropolis was conducted at Parklane Hospital using their patients. Thick and thin, smear of blood were made and examined after proper staining. The staining method which proved effective were the Giemsa and Liesman staining method. It was observed that P.Falciparum was most prevalent of the fair species while P.Ovale has occuarence. The report from P.Malaria and P.Ovale were not significant to be recorded. Prevalent is higher in children than in Adult.
5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation
Malaria is the most important and widespread of parasite diseases in Enugu metropolis with falciparum malaria being responsible for more deaths that any other disease. Plasmodium faciparum is the most prevalent species. This is incidentally the worst offenders in malaria as it leads to various categories of malaria, infection with the highest mobility and mortality rate (Diliello, 1979). It does appear that with 77% prevalence, Enugu metropolis harbours a dangerous species in outstanding proportion.
In regard to the tables, I and III, adult are less attacked than children. There is a clear cut statistical significance different level in children more than that of adult. Children suffer repeated attacks from the age of a few months. Those who do not die, have a substantial immunity by the age of five or six years. There is a little variation in the six years. T here is a little variation in the incidence of malaria from year to year, although there may be marked seasonal fluctuations particularly in children.
It was proved from the test carried out that P. falciparum has the highest frequency followed by Plasmodium vivax. The records or plasmodium ovale and plasmodium malaria showed no statistically difference. Both frequencies on however negligible.
The following recommendations are adequate measures against the malaria infestation Government should implement a health policy that will give the poor and less privileged members of the society the opportunity to receive health services at affordable costs.
Proper drainage systems should be provided in the town and septic tanks prevented from overfilling, they should also be properly covered with cement slabs.
There should be a vigorous attempt by the Enugu city council or its agencies to clear the thick bushes and forests that serve as breeding ground for mosquitoes.
Diagnosis of malaria based on clinical symptoms alone is not reliable. It can result in necessary expenditure and inappropriate use of antimatarial drugs and a delay in establishing a correct diagnosis and treatment of a patient.
An early and accurate diagnosus of falciparum malaria in non-immune adults and pregnant women is also important. Sit is also malaria with record chroloquine resistance.
A lot of drugs can be used to take care of malaria which includes: camoquine, fansider, halfan. Metakaffin, chroroquine. Among all these drugs, chloroquine has been found to be the best although it has some side effect which include itching and ophalmological problems (after long usage). These side effect not withstanding chloroquine is still the drug of choice in malaria treatment
In conclusion, malaria can be a very pressing health problem within the society, so much is lost economically in terms of input to work and school attendance as a result of malaria attacks. The cytological diagnosis of malaria infection in parklane Hospital as conducted revealed that P. falcipaum is the most prevalent of the four species of human malaria. Prevalent is higher in children than in adult. So therefore children should be taken care of in order to avoid exposure to malaria attack. This can be achieved by adequate clothing and keeping the environment clean
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