The Cause Of Infertility Among Women Of 18 To 25 Years (A Case Study Of Vandeikya Local Government Area)

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

The Cause Of Infertility Among Women Of 18 To 25 Years (A Case Study Of Vandeikya Local Government Area)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the cause of infertility among women of 18 to 25 years using Vandeikya Local Government Area, Benue State as a case study. The study was carried out to ascertain the prevalence of infertility among women between 18-25 years in Vandeikya Local Government, investigate the causes of infertility among women in Vandeikya Local Government, and investigate the effect of infertility among women in Vandeikya Local Government. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of women of 18 to 25 years in Vandeikya Local Government Area Benue State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the causes of infertility among women in Vandeikya Local Government includes: poor nutrition, family history, chronic diseases such as diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and drugs abuse. The study also revealed that the effect of infertility among women in Vandeikya Local Government includes: violence, divorce, social stigma, emotional stress, depression, anxiety and low self-esteem. Therefore, it is recommended that reproductive health programs must educate couples on the reduced chances of infertility with advancing age and the need to seek medical care early. Improved access to ART will result in improved pregnancy rates. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Childbearing and raising of children are extremely important events in every human’s life and are strongly associated with the ultimate goals of completeness, happiness and family integration. It is widely accepted that human existence reaches completeness through a child and fulfils the individual’s need for reproduction. Human fertility, compared with other species of animal kingdom, is unfortunately low. (Benagiano, Bastianelli, and Farris 2006)

According to recent studies by the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 8- 10% of couples are facing some kind of infertility problem. Globally, this means that 50-80 million people are facing the problem of getting an integrated family. In the USA, approximately 5 million people have infertility problems, while in Europe the incidence is estimated around 14%. (Gnoth, Godehardt, Frnk Herrmann P, & Friol 2005)

The incidence of infertility is associated with geographic differences. For example, in some west-African communities infertility rate is around 50%, while in some western European countries is 12%. Likewise, differences are observed both in developed countries, where rates range from 3.5% to 16.7%, as well as in less developed countries, where rates of infertility range from 6.9% to 9.3%. It has also been observed that the causes are related to geographical differences. Especially in Western countries, the most common risk factor of infertility is age, while in Africa is sexually transmitted diseases.(Boivin, Bunting,Collins & Nygren 2007).

Infertility is defined as the inability of getting pregnant after trying for at least 6 months or one year, for women over 35 years old, without use of birth control means and while having normal sexual intercourse. Assisted reproduction includes all the methods used for fertilization, which is not achieved through sexual intercourse.(Ombelet,et al..2008).

In the past, people had little control over their fertility and couples that could not get a child had no other choice but to accept the fact. In contrast, although today infertility is a relatively common problem that touches deeply the soul of couples involved in this, medical science has increased the chances of giving solutions to the problem with the Assisted Reproduction. The first successful fertilization of human eggs in the laboratory was in 1978. The fact of the first child-birth by this process was a real milestone because it gave hope to the infertile couples as it offered a possible solution to the problem. Furthermore, in the USA, the first successful childbirth in 1981 through Assisted Reproduction led to rapidly increasing application of this method and the creation of specialized centers. (CDC,2001). Hence the purpose of this study was to investigate the causes of infertility in women of reproductive age.\


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There is increasing recognition in the social science literature that infertility is a devastating problem for women, particularly in the high-fertility context of sub-Saharan Africa. Numerous medical conditions can contribute to infertility. In fact, most cases of infertility are due to other medical conditions. These disorders can damage the fallopian tubes, interfere with ovulation, or cause hormonal complications. Some of the main medical conditions associated with infertility are Polycystic ovaries syndrome (PCOS) is usually a hereditary problem and accounts for up to 90% of cases of an ovulation (Barbier, 2001). PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and it has directly correlated with obesity (Dahlgren et al., 1992). Hormonal anomalies that affect ovulation include hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and hyperprolactinemia (Legro, 2007).

Fertility declines with age. Female fertility is at its peak between the ages of 18 and 24 years (Agboola, 2004), while, it begins to decline after age 27 and drops at a somewhat greater rate after age 35. Ovarian dysfunction could be caused by weight loss and excessive weight gain with body mass index (BMI) greater than 27 kg/m 2 (Imami et al., 1998)). Excess weight has also been found to have effect on treatment efficacy and outcomes of assisted reproductive technique (Freundl et al., 2003).

Although there are no dietary or nutritional cures for infertility, a healthy lifestyle is important for avoid infertility. Some ovulatory problems may be reversible by changing behavioral patterns. Maintain a healthy weight is important because who are either over or underweight are at risk for fertility failure, including a lower chance for achieving success with fertility procedures. Moderate and regular exercise is essential for good health.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically investigate the cause of infertility among women of 18 to 25 years using Vandeikya Local Government Area as a case study. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain the prevalence of infertility among women between 18-25 years in Vandeikya Local Government.
  2. Investigate the causes of infertility among women in Vandeikya Local Government.
  3. Investigate the effect of infertility among women in Vandeikya Local Government.

1.4 Research Question

This study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the prevalence of infertility among women between 18-25 years in Vandeikya Local Government?
  2. What are the causes of infertility among women in Vandeikya Local Government?
  3. What are the effect of infertility among women in Vandeikya Local Government?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The prevalence of infertility among women between 18-25 years in Vandeikya Local Government is high.
  • Ha: The prevalence of infertility among women between 18-25 years in Vandeikya Local Government is low.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will serve as a material for enlightenment for mostly married couples, and the society at large. To a very great extent, this study will educate families on the need and how to manage family and societal pressures which are associated with the issue of infertility especially among women. The study will further caution the society on the implications of intruding into family matters as delicate as infertility, and the need to offer relevant support to victims of infertility not to add fire to the smoke. This study will add to the existing body of knowledge on medical sociology. It will create room for further research on the challenges associated with infertility among married women.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study borders on the cause of infertility among women of 18 to 25 years using Vandeikya Local Government Area as a case study. Hence, the study will be delimited to women of 18 to 25 years using Vandeikya Local Government Area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Infertility:

The inability to conceive after a period of 12 months of uncontrollable and unprotected sexual intercourse.

Couples:

This refers to a man and woman united and legally bounded in marriage.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of local government internally generated revenue at the grassroot level in Nigeria using South West Local Government, Ibadan, Oyo State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the cause of infertility among women of 18 to 25 years using Vandeikya Local Government Area, Benue State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to ascertain the prevalence of infertility among women between 18-25 years in Vandeikya Local Government, investigate the causes of infertility among women in Vandeikya Local Government, and investigate the effect of infertility among women in Vandeikya Local Government.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are women of 18 to 25 years in Vandeikya Local Government Area Benue State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The prevalence of infertility among women between 18-25 years in Vandeikya Local Government is low.
  2. The causes of infertility among women in Vandeikya Local Government includes: poor nutrition, family history, chronic diseases such as diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and drugs abuse.
  3. The effect of infertility among women in Vandeikya Local Government includes: violence, divorce, social stigma, emotional stress, depression, anxiety and low self-esteem.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, getting regular checkups with the doctor and maintenance of normal body weight can avoid fertility problems
  2. Reproductive health programs must educate couples on the reduced chances of infertility with advancing age and the need to seek medical care early. Improved access to ART will result in improved pregnancy rates.
  3. Prevention and early treatment of sexual transmitted infections should remain a priority to reduce tubal factor infertility.
  4. Physical activity and low caloric intake should be encouraged to prevent obesity

Get Complete Project Material

6,000 Naira

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦6,500 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($25)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: The Cause Of Infertility Among Women Of 18 To 25 Years (A Case Study Of Vandeikya Local Government Area)

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.