Perception And Attitude Of Men Towards Infertility Among Individuals In The Community

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Perception And Attitude Of Men Towards Infertility Among Individuals In The Community


Abstract


This study was carried out to the perception and attitude of men towards infertility among individuals in the community using selected community in Agbor, Delta State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of men resident in selected community of Agbor, Delta State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 63respondents and all were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that the causes of infertility among individuals in the community as perceived by men include; nutritional factors, psychosexual factors, evil spirits, witchcraft, and god’s retribution. The study also revealed that the risk factors of infertility among individuals in the community as perceived by men include smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, advanced maternal age, sexually transmitted infections. it was further discovered that men has a negative attitude towards infertility among individuals in the community. To mention but a few. Therefore, it is recommended that there is need for widespread campaigns to be organized by government as well as by non-governmental organizations to enlighten the public with the aim of correcting these beliefs so that better management of infertility can be achieved. And special emphasis should be placed on directing individuals to the correct knowledge and healthy practices and helping them seek medical advice as their only preference for treatment.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Reproduction is known as an essential human desire so that infertility may cause a great deal of psychosocial impairment [Khodakarami, and Hashemi, 2009]. According to WHO, infertility is defined as a disease of the reproductive system in which pregnancy does not occur after 1 year of continued intercourse [Masearenhas, and Flaxma, 2012]. Infertility is considered as a global concern which affects many aspects of life in both genders [Sumera, and Raafay, 2010]. The rates even go up to 186 million people around the world [Inhorn, and Patrizio, 2015].Infertility may work as a painful emotional experience [Dural,&Yasa, 2016]. It can cause a lot of psychological issues including stress, anxiety, depression, diminished self-esteem,declined sexual satisfaction, and reduced quality of life [Kamel &Remah, 2010]. The resulted psychosocial issues affect the female gender adversely more than her spouse [Patrizio, 2015], especially in societies where there are prejudices against women [Balen, and Bos, 2009]. As such, an infertile couples may show a relatively high level of frustration and anger which affect her relationship with family, friends and even spouse. Likewise, infertile couples are more likely to develop mental illnesses, marital dissatisfaction, and impaired quality of life compared to the individuals of fertile group [ Farrokh and Eslamlou, 2014]. Attitudes of men toward infertility are often influenced by ethnic and cultural groups [Aliyeh, and Laya, 2007]. In the eastern societies, the community mainly expects women to play a role as a mother. Thiswill cause many psychosocial concerns and many other challenges if pregnancy does not occur for any reason [Choobfroushzadeh, 2013]. Therefore, more studies are required among eastern societies to reveal the impact of social, cultural and individual factors on an infertile couples’ quality of life [Daniluk, 2002].

Furthermore, while the infertility is not a disease, it and its treatment can affect all aspects of couples’ lives, which can cause various health, psychological, and emotional disorders or consequences including turmoil, frustration, depression, anxiety, hopelessness, guilt, and feelings of worthlessness in life (Maroufizadeh, 2015). For instance, a quantitative study in Iran revealed that infertility treatment is amongst the most stressful factors for the infertile(Ghaheri, 2015). However, according to Isiugo-Abanihe, (1998), infertility can be wholly accepted and managed by the couple as a marital challenge in their enduring love but pressure from society/extended family weaken the relationship. In line with the above, this study is focused on unveiling the perception and attitude of men towards infertility among individuals in the community.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Infertility is a global phenomenon that affects between 60 million and 168 million people worldwide(Sami, and Ali, 2006). It affects 13% to 15% of couples worldwide(Kamel, 2010). It places a huge psychological burden on the infertile couple, and it may lead to depression, suicidal tendencies, and other pathologic psychological conditions(Fido, 2004). The medical definition of infertility is the failure to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse(WHO, 2003). Primary infertility is the inability to conceive after1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse with no previous conceptions. Secondary infertility occurs when couples who have previously conceived children are now unable to conceive(Chandra, Martinez, & Mosher, 2002).Infertility is surrounded by many mistaken beliefs about its causes, such as witchcraft and possession by evil spirits, and these beliefs negatively affect its management(Namujju, 2008).In a previous study on an adult population in Nigeria(Ali, Sophie, & Imam, 2011), only 25% correctly identified when infertility is pathological and only 46% knew about the fertile period in a woman’s cycle. Evil forces and supernatural powers were widely held as causes of infertility. In Kuwaiti women, most educated participants blamed infertility on nutritional, marital, and psychosexual factors, but participants who were not literate blamed their infertility on supernatural causes, such as evil spirits, witchcraft, and God’s retribution.

The risk factors for infertility include smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, advanced maternal age, sexually transmitted infections, and many others(Namujju, 2008). Increasing the level of knowledge of these factors may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors that might lead to it. This knowledge may also help wider society to understand and empathize with the infertile couple, which may lead to a decrease in the psychological burden to those affected(Bunting, 2008). Because infertility is a taboo subject, people accumulate many misconceptions about reproductive health and fertility all over the world. However, in Agbor, Delta State,no previous studies have been conducted to assess men’s perception and attitude related to infertility. Thus, the aims of this examine the perception and attitude of men towards infertility among individuals in the community.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the perception and attitude of men towards infertility among individuals in the community. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Identify men’s perception towards the causes of infertility among individuals in the community.
  2. Identify men’s perception towards the risk factors of infertility among individuals in the community.
  3. Determine the attitude of men towards infertility among individuals in the community
  4. Determine men’s perception towards the consequences of infertility among individuals in the community.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is men’s perception towards the causes of infertility among individuals in the community.
  2. What is men’s perception towards the risk factors of infertility among individuals in the community.
  3. What is the attitude of men towards infertility among individuals in the community?
  4. What is men’s perception towards the consequences of infertility among individuals in the community.

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study will serve as a material for enlightenment for mostly married couples, and the society at large. To a very great extent, this study will educate families on the need and how to manage family and societal pressures which are associated with the issue of infertility especially among women. The study will further caution the society on the implications of intruding into family matters as delicate as infertility, and the need to offer relevant support to victims of infertility not to add fire to the smoke. This study will add to the existing body of knowledge on medical sociology. It will create room for further research on the challenges associated with infertility among married women.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the perception and attitude of men towards infertility among individuals in the community. However, the study will further identify men’s perception towards the causes of infertility among individuals in the community, identify men’s perception towards the risk factors of infertility among individuals in the community, determine the attitude of men towards infertility among individuals in the community, determine men’s perception towards the consequences of infertility among individuals in the community.

The respondents for this study will be obtained from selected community in Agbor, Delta State.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Childless:

The absence of children in a family resulting from the inability to conceive a child by married couple or death of existing children.

Culture:

The arts, customs, beliefs, values, behavior and material objects that constitute peoples’ way of life.

Fertility:

The condition, or the degree of being fertile

Infertility:

The inability to conceive after a period of 12 months of uncontrollable and unprotected sexual intercourse.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the perception and attitude of men towards infertility among individuals in the community using selected community in Agbor, Delta State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was onthe perception and attitude of men towards infertility among individuals in the community using selected community in Agbor, Delta StateThe study is was specifically set to; identify men’s perception towards the causes of infertility among individuals in the community, identify men’s perception towards the risk factors of infertility among individuals in the community, determine the attitude of men towards infertility among individuals in the community, and men’s perception towards the consequences of infertility among individuals in the community.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 63 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were men resident in selected community of Agbor, Delta State.


5.3 Conclusions

In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.

  1. The causes of infertility among individuals in the community as perceived by men include; nutritional factors, psychosexual factors, evil spirits, witchcraft, and god’s retribution.
  2. The risk factors of infertility among individuals in the community as perceived by men include smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, advanced maternal age, sexually transmitted infections.
  3. Men has a negative attitude towards infertility among individuals in the community.
  4. The consequences of infertility among individuals in the community as perceived by men include; marital dissatisfaction, abusive treatment from spouse, physical and mental health challenges, termination of marriage, impaired quality of life, and psychological burden.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. There is need for widespread campaigns to be organized by government as well as by non-governmental organizations to enlighten the public with the aim of correcting these beliefs so that better management of infertility can be achieved.
  2. Special emphasis should be placed on directing individuals to the correct knowledge and healthy practices and helping them seek medical advice as their only preference for treatment.
  3. Future research is necessary to determine the extent to which the pattern of attitudes found here is representative of that in the population facing infertility as well as in the general population.

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