Attitude And Practices Of Breast Self Examination Among Female Undergraduate Students Of Tertiary Institutions

Project and Seminar Material for Public Health

Attitude And Practices Of Breast Self Examination Among Female Undergraduate Students Of Tertiary Institutions


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the attitude and practices of breast self examination among female undergraduate students of tertiary institutions using Imo state university as a case study. The study was specifically set to assess the knowledge of female undergraduate students on the need for breast self-examination, ascertain the sources of information on breast self-examination among female undergraduate students of tertiary institutions, ascertain the attitude of female undergraduate students towards breast self-examination, and ascertain the practices of female undergraduate students towards breast self-examination. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of female students in Imo state university.. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi- square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that female undergraduate students in Imo state university understands the need for breast self-examination. Furthermore, the study revealed that breast self-examination is practiced among female undergraduate students through the feeling the breast with one finger, feeling with two finger, and feeling with the palm and three fingers or more. Therefore, it is recommended that sensitisation campaigns and other programmes designed should be used to create awareness about BSE in order to improve students attitude towards the practice of BSE in breast cancer prevention. To mention but few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Breast cancer is the top cancer in women both in the developed and in the developing country (World Health Organisation 2019). Breast cancer is the second cause of cancer worldwide and the fifth cause of cancer mortality (Centre for Disease Control Prevention, 2015). It is estimated that the prevalence of breast cancer in women aged15and over in Sub-Saharan Africa was 23.5per 100,000 women in 2008 (Global Health Estimates, 2013). During the same period, an estimated 35,427 women died from breast cancer – a crude mortality rate of 12.8 per100.000 women (Global Health Estimates 2013). In Cameroon, the crude annual incidence of breast cancer is estimated at 19.3 per 100,000women with a mortality of 10.7 per 100,000 women (Global Cancer (GLOBACAN, 2008). In a retrospective study carried out in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, (2000-2013), total cancers diagnosed was 5,979. Total percentage of breast cancer mortality was 25.6%, making it cancer that caused the highest mortality in those 14 years. (Akinde, Phillips, Oguntunde, & Afolayan, 2015).

Prevention remains the cornerstone of the fight against breast cancer worldwide. Although some prevention methods have been proposed, many remain inaccessible to women in developing countries who, ironically, given the limited diagnostic and curative facilities available to them, need prevention the most. Breast Self-Examination (BSE), although not having been shown to be effective in reducing mortality, is still recommended as a general approach to increase breast health awareness and thus potentially allow for early detection of any anomalies. Furthermore, BSE continues to be recommended by health care practitioners because it is free, painless and easy to practice (Global Health Estimates, 2013). Better documenting women’s knowledge on breast cancer and BSE as well as their practice of BSE would be useful in the design of interventions aimed at preventing breast cancer through increased awareness and improved screening (WHO 2019).

Global cancer statistics show the rising incidence of breast cancer and the increase is occurring at a faster rate in the developing countries (Ikechukwu, Amari, Nnenna, Nwino & Onwunaka, 2015). Breast cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer mortality and the first leading cause of cancer mortality in females worldwide. Unfortunately, at the onset of signs and symptoms, the disease has developed enough to cause devastating damage to the body, or even cause death. BSE is one of the methods of possibly diagnosing the onset of breast cancer at its early stages when it has higher chances of being controlled or stopped. Regularly examination of the breasts on your own can be an important way to find breast cancer early when it’s more likely to be treated successfully (Komen, 2018). Not every cancer can be found this way, but it is a critical step that should betaken by oneself (Komen, 2018). Adult women of all ages are encouraged to perform breast self-examination at least once a month. Johns Hopkins Medical Centre states that “Forty per cent of diagnosed breast cancers are detected by women who feel a lump, so establishing a regular breast self- examination is very important.” BSE has been identified as an approach in the early detection of breast cancer in developing nations. Shrivastava Shrivastava and Ramasamy (2013) reported that a wide knowledge-application gap has been observed across the globe between the knowledge and the actual practice of BSE. This requires a sustained political commitment and further studies to recognise the perceived barriers which are interfering with the uptake of BSE so that the greatest challenge of the late presentation can be curbed and the chances of survival improved (ShrivastavaShrivastava, & Ramasamy 2013). In view of the above, there searcher assess the attitude and practices of breast self examination among female undergraduate students of tertiary institutions.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

WHO (2014) classifies breast cancer as the leading form of cancer among women from developed, middle-income, and third-world economies. Rates of the disease in middle-income and developing economies are on the rise due to urbanization. WHO (2014) asserts that mammography screening serves the only method that is effective, but it is applied in high resource settings. WHO (2014) further claims that there lacks evidence that supports the effect of BSE screening process.

However, some groups of researchers attribute the practice of BSE as essential in empowering women towards being responsible for their health. As such, engaging in BSE practice is imperative to raise awareness and pass knowledge among groups at risk of developing breast cancer as opposed to a screening method. According to the American Cancer Society (2014), BSE practice should be observed by women in their early 20s. In some countries, BSE is required to be conducted on a monthly basis.

Vorobiof et al. (2001) observed that physicians have realized an alarming rate of breast cancer incidents among young black women. What is even more worrying due to increased cases of the disease among young black women is that they have the lowest survival rate due to seeking healthcare when its already too late. The reason for delays before seeking healthcare professional services emanates from a tendency of the group to first seek consultation from traditional healers relating to lumps they experience in their breasts (Vorobi et al., 2001). Late diagnosis of breast cancer serves as the reason that subjects young women to lower survival rate as they have a tendency of seeking medical care when the disease is at advanced stages than their older counterparts.

Despite authorities recommending breast self-examination with an aim of limiting cases of breast cancer, BSE is still not widespread among female undergraduates in Nigeria. Additionally, even with a quantifiable number of women possessing knowledge about the practice, and the resulting health benefits, they rarely practice it. The aforementioned are imperative in the current research directed at the attitude and practices of breast self examination among female undergraduate students of tertiary institutions.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The General objective of the study is to assess the attitude and practices of breast self examination among female undergraduate students of tertiary institutions. Other specific objectives are:

  1. Assess the knowledge of female undergraduate students on the need for breast self-examination.
  2. Ascertain the sources of information on breast self-examination among female undergraduate students of tertiary institutions.
  3. Ascertain the attitude of female undergraduate students towards breast self-examination.
  4. Ascertain the practices of female undergraduate students towards breast self-examination.

1.4 Research Questions

Given the objective of the study above, the following research questions are thus formulated to guide the study:

  1. What are the need for breast self-examination?
  2. What are the sources of information on breast self-examination among female undergraduate students of tertiary institutions?a
  3. What is the attitude of female undergraduate students towards breast self-examination?
  4. How is breast self-examination practiced among female undergraduate students?

1.5 Statement of Hypothesis

  • Ho: Female undergraduate students do not have positive attitude towards breast self-examination.
  • Ha: Female undergraduate students have positive attitude towards breast self-examination.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The data generated from the study will form a base line survey to develop future intervention programmes on breast cancer and BSE. The results of this study provided useful data that may be used by health institutions in Imo State and other states in Nigeria to formulate health education programmes focusing on breast cancer and BSE that target female undergraduate students. The findings will add to the pool of available data in the fields of health education and provide future researchers the background for further research work. The data generated on the female undergraduates’ level of knowledge of breast cancer may be beneficial to public health educators, school health educators, health care professionals and health organizations, since it may make them see the need to carry out breast cancer education-based programmes at the different settings where female undergraduates could be reached, to optimize their level of knowledge on concept of breast cancer, breast cancer risk factors, signs and symptoms and preventive measures.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study focuses on the attitude and practices of breast self examination among female undergraduate students of tertiary institutions. The study will be carried out in Imo State University.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Breast Cancer:

This is a general term that is used to refer to various cancers that develop from the breast tissue.

Breast Self Examination:

This is an inspection of one’s breasts that women do on themselves to help increase breast awareness, by using one’s eyes and hands to determine if there are any changes in the look and feel of the breasts.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the attitude and practices of breast self examination among female undergraduate students of tertiary institutions using Imo state university as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the attitude and practices of breast self examination among female undergraduate students of tertiary institutions using Imo state university as a case study. Specifically the study was set to assess the knowledge of female undergraduate students on the need for breast self-examination, ascertain the sources of information on breast self-examination among female undergraduate students of tertiary institutions, ascertain the attitude of female undergraduate students towards breast self-examination, and ascertain the practices of female undergraduate students towards breast self-examination.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are female students in Imo state university.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion

  1. Female undergraduate students in Imo state university understands the need for breast self-examination.
  2. The sources of information on breast self-examination among female undergraduate students of tertiary institutions includes; media, friends, school, family/relatives, and healthcare personnel.
  3. Female undergraduate students in Imo state university has positive attitude towards breast self-examination.
  4. Breast self-examination is practiced among female undergraduate students through the feeling the breast with one finger, feeling with two finger, and feeling with the palm and three fingers or more.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Sensitisation campaigns and other programmes designed should be used to create awareness about BSE in order to improve students attitude towards the practice of BSE in breast cancer prevention.
  2. Proactive measures need to be taken to increase the level of knowledge of BSE through educational programs among every category of women to reduce morbidity and mortality from breast cancer in Nigeria in the nearest future.

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