Role Of Radio In Promoting Primary Health Care
The main objective of this study was to investigate radio in promoting primary health care in Nigeria particularly in Ogooluwa local government, Oyo state. The study was carried out due to the perception that radio is the most effective medium for interacting with rural residents because rural residents in Ogo-Oluwa lack access to power for television viewing and a high level of illiteracy prevents them from reading newspapers, radio is seen to be the most effective medium for reaching them. Agenda setting Theory was used as the foundational theory. A survey research method was adapted whereas questionnaire was used as the data collection instrument. Respondents were selected using quota sampling technique, the questionnaires were administered to respondents that were drawn from five strategic communities within Ogooluwa local council, and the communities includes Odo-Oba, Iwo-Ate, Ota-Mokun, Pontela and Mowolowo town. The data were analyzed in frequency and percentage method and the data were presented with the aid of tables. Findings shows that the majority of the respondents listen to health programmes on the radio. It also shows that through health programme, they now stay healthy. It is recommended that mass media especially radio is to partner with various governments, NGOs and other international organizations like the World Health Organization and UNICEF in bringing their activities to the doorstep of the women and concerned public because no matter their efforts might be, if not disseminated appropriately it may not have a positive impact on the target people and one of the fasted and easiest way to converge message is through the radio.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
There is a popular assertion that has become a cliché that “health is wealth”. Thus, making everyone in the society irrespective of their status- social, political and academic to pay attention to health matters, because no one is too big to fall. However, one of the cheapest platforms to get up to date health information is through radio stations. Radio is one of the agents of socialisation and a tool for community mobilisation. Radio as a medium comes with unique characteristics that make it still very relevant despite the globalisation, media convergence and intimidations by the new media i.e radio is still regarded as one of the most effective means of reaching local audience.
The flexibility of radio placed it at the advantage over every other media of communication thereby making it easy to reach out to people faster and effectively especially on health matters before, during and after an outbreak of any disease such as when ebola suddenly emerged, radio was a powerful tool employed.
It is established that mass media entertain, educate, enlighten and inform, thus, radio through its health programmes can perform all the four functions together. Society for Family Health, among others, are a “Healthtainment” programme (health and entertainment). Also, how to prevent malaria in our society is both educative and enlightening. Similarly, radio informs us when there is an outbreak or certain activities in some areas that can cause a health-related problem in our society.
Although, there are lots of health communication media one of the best approaches is the use of mass media advocacy especially a credible radio. For many decades, mass media have been employed as an instrument for health campaigns in other to change the behaviours of a larger audience. Most of the campaigns have notably been aimed at tobacco use and heart-disease prevention, but have also addressed alcohol and illicit drug use, cancer screening and prevention, sex-related behaviours, child survival, and many other health-related issues (Wakefield, Loken and Hornik, 2015).
Wakefield, et. al. (2015) posits that media campaigns can be of short duration or may extend over long periods depending on the objective of the campaign and the fund available for such efforts. They may stand alone or be linked to other organised programme components, such as clinical or institutional outreach and easy access to newly available or existing products or services, or may complement policy changes. Multiple methods of dissemination might be used if health campaigns are part of broader social marketing programmes.
Through this, community radio stations serve as agents of social change, community health mobilisation, tools for development that support two-way communication systems that enable dialogue and that allow communities to speak out, express their aspirations and concerns and participate in community health development (UNICEF, 2012).
However, there is a causal relationship that exists between community radio and the people, for people to accept the community radio as a source of knowledge and as a mouthpiece for the marginalized, the community and people must work hand in hand. The community radio, which is the most diverse mode of communication in community health care, plays an essential role in the collection and passing of information, also in helping the public inform the right opinion about health care. It is against this background that the research examines the role of radio in promoting primary health in Ogooluwa Local government area of Oyo state with the hope to know the extent to which radio stations have performed this especially in terms of airtime allotted to health-related programmes.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Mass media health educational programmes over time have been regarded as effective tools in educating and informing the masses on health-related issues. These programmes can be read, listened to or viewed by the masses. Community radio plays important role in educating community members on health issues, especially those health challenges that are rampant or still seen in communities where such radios are located.
Issues like child mortality, measles, diabetes, high blood pressure, sexually transmitted diseases and more are predominant in many communities. According to Airhihenbuwa & Obregon (2012), there has been a significant increase in the use of radio-based interventions for health at international and community levels in recent years. This showed that radio play important role in health intervention messages in communities but are these health intervention programmes being felt by the community members?.
Are they impact meaningfully on the community members that listen to these programmes? Have these programmes been able to increase the knowledge of the community members on these health issues, and change their attitudes and behaviours? In view of these, this study will therefore examine the role of radio in promoting primary health care in Ogooluwa Local government area of Oyo state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- To examine the extent to which residents of Ogooluwa LGA are exposed to health programmes on radio stations.
- To ascertain the extent to which radio disseminates primary health and other health-related matters to the residents of Ogooluwa LGA.
1.4 Research Questions
- To what extent are residents of Ogooluwa LGA are exposed to health programmes on the radio?
- To what extent are radio stations disseminate primary health and other health-related matters to the residents of Ogooluwa LGA residence?
1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
The study formulated and tested the following hypothesis in other to achieve the research objectives;
Ho: The extent to which residents of Ogooluwa LGA are exposed to health programmes on the radio is low
Hi: The extent to which residents of Ogooluwa LGA are exposed to health programmes on the radio is high
H02: The extent which radio stations disseminate primary health and other health-related matters to the residents of Ogooluwa LGA residence is low
Hi2: The extent which radio stations disseminate primary health and other health-related matters to the residents of Ogooluwa LGA residence is high
1.6 Significance of the Study
Since community radio has emerged as a tool for effective communication and mobilisation, it has been advanced for other meaningful courses including social change and advocacy for community development.
The study will be beneficial to the management of radio stations especially community radio stations, governmental and non-governmental agencies, advocacy groups, future researchers and other stakeholders locally and globally.
It is hoped that this study will give an insight into the impact of radio as a campus radio on health education programmes. It will advocate a better approach to health issues among community members in Ogooluwa LGA and does make a difference in promoting change as it concerns health. Also, suggest possible programme content to radio stations’ health education programmes.
The management radio stations could use the research finding to create programmes and formulate better community-oriented health advocacy programmes that will help prevent, solve and guide against health problems in the community.
The outcome of this research may lead to a better understanding of community radio, its uses towards social change and for community development programmes especially among NGOs that are saddled with health promotion matters.
It will further expose more people to the need to pay attention to community radio and other media of mass communication health programmes in order to live a healthy life.
Future researchers and students will find the material relevant as it will form bulk literature that exists in the field of mass communication, health communication and communication for development etc that they can lay hands on when carrying out research related or similar to this.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is to examine the role of radio in promoting primary health in Ogooluwa local government in Oyo state. The council area (Ogooluwa LGA) was selected because of its proximity to researchers while the residents of Ogooluwa LGA do have access to several radio stations. Other factors considered for narrowing the scope of this study to Ogooluwa L.G is inadequate funds coupled with time to adopt many communities or many community radio stations.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
To further understand the study made by the researcher, the following terms are defined on how it was used in the study.
This refers to the contributions of radio stations in promoting primary health in Ogooluwa.
Primary Health Programmes:
These are programmes on radio stations that dwelled entirely or partially on health education or health matters generally that are disseminated to the radio audience in Ogooluwa local government area.
Primary healthcare (PHC) refers to essential health care that is based on scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology, which make universal health care accessible to all individuals and families in a community.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the role of radio in promoting primary health carE using Ogooluwa local government, Oyo state as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the role of radio in promoting primary health carE using Ogooluwa local government, Oyo state as case study.
The study is was specifically focused on examining the extent to which residents of Ogooluwa LGA are exposed to health programmes on radio stations and ascertaining the extent to which radio disseminates primary health and other health-related matters to the residents of Ogooluwa LGA.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are resident of Ogooluwa local government, Oyo state.
With respect to the analysis and the findings of this study, the following conclusions emerged;
- Radio has strong potentials to reach ordinary citizens including people at the grass roots in Nigeria and across Africa. Radio remains a strong source for public information in times of health crisis.
- Findings of the study reveal that the actual and preferred methods of obtaining health messages were broadcast Media like Radio & Television, Print media (newspapers, newsletters, fryers, Magazine) and Social media (Twitter, Facebook Instagram etc).
- The extent at which health messages are communicated through radio broadcast is high.
- Radio an effective method to increase health knowledge and intentions to change health behavior
- The factors contributing to an individual’s preferred radio source of health information includes, Time & Cost , Electricity, Portability and Accessibility
From the findings of the study, the following recommendations are made:
- Radio stations need to recognize that they have an important role to play in the fight to minimize misinformation in Nigeria and across Africa thus this should enhance their effectiveness in performing their social responsibility of sensitizing the masses on health matters.
- News and program content need to be carefully sourced and tailored to ensure that listeners in cities and at the grassroots, receive updated and accurate information about health matters.
- Government and private sector support are also necessary for radio to function effectively in Africa. Sadly, many radio stations are underfunded.
- Policy makers and Government should ensure they build the confidence and trust of the masses toward accepting health communication messages via radio and as well ensure that government provides it in large quantity to reach the rural dweller.
- .Civic societies should endeavor to collaborate with knowledgeable healthcare workers to go on outreach and enlighten the masses on the need to take the health communication messages shared on radio.
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