Effectiveness Of Radio In Awareness Campaign Against Corona Virus Pandemic In The Rural Community (A Study Of Emure Ekiti, Ekiti State)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

Effectiveness Of Radio In Awareness Campaign Against Corona Virus Pandemic In The Rural Community (A Study Of Emure Ekiti, Ekiti State)


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effectiveness of radio in awareness campaign against corona virus pandemic in the rural community in Emure Ekiti, Ekiti State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprises of residents of Emure Ekiti, Ekiti State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 160 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses was tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the extent rural residents are exposed to radio broadcast campaigns on COVID-19 as it relates to their health is high.The study also revealed that radio COVID-19 campaigns effectively raised rural residents awareness of the virus. Furthermore, the study revealed that radio campaigns effectively contributed to rural residents’ knowledge on the nature and mode of transmission of the virus. And radio campaigns improved rural residents knowledge of the Covid-19 preventive measures. Therefore, it is recommendedBroadcasting media should package their campaign content in a way it will not cause panic among people.Broadcasting media should also maintain their efforts in shaping the perception of people to be conscious of their health in the wake of COVID-19 in order to curtail the spread.In order to enhance COVID-19 education through radio, there is need to use local languages often to accommodate those who are less educated in English Language.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Information is one of the most important things in our modern society. When we get informed about something, we get knowledge. This knowledge protects us from making a mistake. Information has become a potent tool in creating awareness to the people in fighting the dreaded pandemic of Covid 19 ravaging the whole world in recent time. Uninformed society stands a chance of being deformed. Proper and timely information creates awareness that can trigger social change when passed through appropriate communication channels. Basically, information brings about social process that produces changes in the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of individuals, and groups, by providing factual and technical information, through motivational or persuasive messages, and facilitating the learning process and social environment. These results might then lead to increase in the adoption of crucial attitudes by the individuals that are capable of reducing the spread of Covid 19 in the society. Other possible consequences of information include enhancement in selfesteem and well-being through participation in community and social life, increasing the individual’s perceived efficacy in dealing with other people, reinforcing mutual respect and enhancing confidence among social groups and building trust within communities, (Hudson, 2001). Effective information must utilize a credible channel that will pass message to the audience to bring about desired change in the society. A channel like radio is handy in passing sensitive information to the people on vital issue due to the medium reach to all categories of people in the society. Hubley (1993) opines that radio as a medium is a very powerful instrument in spreading health related messages to the sub-literates population because it reaches a huge audience quickly and allows the people to interact with one another more easily than television viewers or newspaper readers. Radio has remained the most powerful and credible information and entertainment medium in most developing countries like Nigeria. Because it is affordable and accessible, radio is the most popular medium in Nigeria especially with the recent upsurge in the use of FM radio stations. Portable battery-operated radio sets are frequently brought to farms and other rural locations, even in the remotest parts of Nigeria. This availability gives radio the capacity of being heard by a large, diverse audience. Messages on Covid 19 packaged in jingles prepared in indigenous languages, drama, poetry recitals, proverbs, and music promoted on the radio will appeal to all categories of audiences and potentially influence them to adopt responsible, healthy behaviors that can stop the spread of the pandemic in the society, (Hubley 1993). Collaborating Hubley views, Sharecast (2018), states that radio has become the most popular and effective medium for information dissemination to a larger audience. Use of radio by several humanitarian agencies in Nigeria for general and behavioural change messaging substantiates the aforementioned statement. Undoubtedly people in urban areas prefer television and social media to the radio, but a large chunk of Nigeria’s population (around two-third of the total population) still live in rural parts of the country and radio is the most accessible and reliable source of information for them (Sharecast, 2018).

In the wake of COVID-19 crisis where social and physical distancing is vital, radio enables Nigeria Centre for Disease Control, (NCDC), Ministry of health and other organizations to reach a wide audience with critical information that can be lifesaving, inform change in behaviour and provide a platform for discussion on a range of topics. At present, number of confirmed Covid 19 cases in Nigeria hit 165,199 as of the time of the research, and the deaths rates amounting to 2,063, (NCDC, 2021) across the country. Some states of the federation like Lagos, FCT and Plateau are having the highest number of confirmed cases in the country. Interestingly, Ekiti state that had her case recorded earlier compared to many other states. The sustained radio messages have inadvertently helped the residents to take the precautionary measures prescribed by NCDC, hence the low rate of cases in the state as compared to other states like, Lagos, Plateau, Kaduna, Oyo, Rivers and the rest.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

COVID-19 is a major issue that Nigeria government battles with since 2020. To curb the spread of the virus, the Federal government initiated several responses, including media campaigns to fight the spread of COVID-19 in Nigeria. Leading the frontlines is the Federal Ministry of Health, supported by the Presidential Task Force (PTF) for the Control of the COVID19 and NCDC with the task of formulating and implementing policies and preventive measures, including inter-state and international travel bans, stay at home orders, restrictions on mass gatherings, closure of schools and businesses and cessation of non-essential movements.1 Also, NCDC, the government agency saddled with the responsibility of curbing the spread of COVID-19, embarked on informational and media campaigns, including radio campaigns, to create awareness of COVID-19 preventive and safety measures.2 On the premise that the media is responsible for arming the public with vital information during a health crisis like the COVID-19 pandemic, media campaigns, particularly radio campaigns, are deployed to influence the public’s health behaviors and perceptions.3 Several studies (8) have found that media campaigns on public health crises like the Ebola outbreak and, most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic help prevent diseases and can moderately influence health behavior. For instance, during the Ebola outbreak, the media influenced the public’s awareness of the disease and the adoption of preventive measures. However as observe by the researcher some factors such as beliefs, fear of misinformation, and inadequate radio network posed a serious challenge the effectiveness of radio during the Covid-19 pandemic.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of radio in awareness campaign against corona virus pandemic in the rural community using Emure Ekiti, Ekiti State as a case study. Other objective of this study are:

  1. Ascertain the extent rural residents are exposed to radio broadcast campaigns on COVID-19 as it relates to their health.
  2. Find out whether radio COVID-19 campaigns effectively raised rural residents awareness of the virus,
  3. Find out whether radio campaigns effectively contributed to rural residents’ knowledge on the nature and mode of transmission of the virus.
  4. Ascertain whether radio campaigns improved rural residents knowledge of the Covid-19 preventive measures.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the extent rural residents are exposed to radio broadcast campaigns on COVID-19 as it relates to their health?
  2. Did radio COVID-19 campaigns effectively raised rural residents awareness of the virus?
  3. Did radio campaigns effectively contributed to rural residents’ knowledge on the nature and mode of transmission of the virus?
  4. Did radio campaigns improved rural residents knowledge of the Covid-19 preventive measures?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

H0: The radio is not effective in creating awareness campaign against corona virus pandemic in the rural community.

Ha: The radio is effective in creating awareness campaign against corona virus pandemic in the rural community.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to the mass media as it will help them know and make effective policies that will aid in the spread of accurate information about covid 19.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the effectiveness of radio in awareness campaign against corona virus pandemic in the rural community.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is structured to examine the effectiveness of radio in awareness campaign against corona virus pandemic in the rural community. The study will be carried out in Emure Ekiti, Ekiti State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Mass Media:

This is a diverse array of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication

Coronaviruses:

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases.

Radio Broadcast:

Messages broadcasted through radio


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effectiveness of radio in awareness campaign against corona virus pandemic in the rural community in Emure Ekiti, Ekiti State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effectiveness of radio in awareness campaign against corona virus pandemic in the rural community in Emure Ekiti, Ekiti State. The study is was specifically carried out to ascertain the extent rural residents are exposed to radio broadcast campaigns on COVID-19 as it relates to their health, find out whether radio COVID-19 campaigns effectively raised rural residents awareness of the virus, find out whether radio campaigns effectively contributed to rural residents’ knowledge on the nature and mode of transmission of the virus, and ascertain whether radio campaigns improved rural residents knowledge of the Covid-19 preventive measures.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were residents of Emure Ekiti, Ekiti State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent rural residents are exposed to radio broadcast campaigns on COVID-19 as it relates to their health is high.
  2. Radio COVID-19 campaigns effectively raised rural residents awareness of the virus.
  3. Radio campaigns effectively contributed to rural residents’ knowledge on the nature and mode of transmission of the virus.
  4. Radio campaigns improved rural residents knowledge of the Covid-19 preventive measures.

5.4 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Broadcasting media should package their campaign content in a way it will not cause panic among people. Broadcasting media should also maintain their efforts in shaping the perception of people to be conscious of their health in the wake of COVID-19 in order to curtail the spread.
  2. Having known that exposure to broadcast media campaigns on COVID-19 is responsible for some healthy behaviour by the people. Therefore, the broadcast media should not relent in their effort as the scourge of COVID-19 is still prevalent in the society.
  3. In order to enhance COVID-19 education through radio, there is need to use local languages often to accommodate those who are less educated in English Language.
  4. Those responsible for handling health issues in other states of the federation should adequately embrace radio to disseminate the messages in view of its advantages over other media of communication.

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